gc@ wFAO^ : cXoc c

~U@̵S r





Y ~a q sA s sA @a ~wTF
-- mU

Y s gF q TZF-gF -- ~ s gF cq wMH gF
-- AXB^S



gcS jce AO^, @Ac R wF ToF @S @S rAS@ ASTT s gZ ~ @aS Av cXoc c mf@ @SAS | cm䨩 J wF oS @Ac Ag @q ASyn^ a | ~ q wF AO^S@ ~Sq gc@ gkAT@-cU l@ | ~T r w r@ Ar\f-em@ UZ@ jk STSf SAS | J mc R mrS ToF j@Av m cFcoS AOA AaU | kL @ZS-@ZS s J OS WO Awa BSF f J ~@Am@ ~@ػ |

cXoc wF oST PcArF ~SFTSm ~gc | J s-@S wFOS mcS @ ޮe s^ Z POSF Bw AmA @B @a | ~O ~fAQة i@ OZ q cS o S ަq mgAc@ | cf^S rAr jce @U q AASq j@Tn UZ@ sJ OS j@ Ac coH @a cowTF | s@ ~T FmQ i@ cU Sɽ @A @a AUZS ~cS sTS ~AScs, AcrAcFU TSmf ~oF@ @aR TAS | cXoc wF jq ɵU c ɰH, @p mc, @ | ԮY A/@^ɮA wF ޡ ASިH ~BS WAv AAS T Tkq i@@ AB SS, ~: mf AXo^ ~S@kUF @ fAQة @S | j@ ~˻ ~crF jq S s AAS nf @iT kcos A@q AXo^ Ac AA @S | J AAv ɰF ~^ ̲s sTS, TS Acr @S (common sense) sws mgAc@ة Ug @ | J A wFAr\f R\v v `if style is the man it is also the age' ASdAAv AS@K cI SR s cXoc OS cFcY cwc^ Tf@U ~TW m ; jce Tm cAU c cOS ~ɦU s ~TF ToF@KH ~SocS @ s Av TH @, AAS oAS R ~˻ m-w^S sF jTS j@Av cFAAcr (multiverse) PA @ AS OS s Oyr» cmAcr (universe) c^ a | jq ~Lfݩ LLR J ASAT gK Bw AASq ASTɩ, jce q BwlAv Y KT ~AoF mݲkH |

^ Sq, T OMof gA mvqU jq gAgAHA TdTH @ | T OMof @FgK A@ rK s^ ogKɮUg Aĩq @r S s@ cXoc m:mkA ~gc cU ~Ags @aS ? ݨ-cɮf dH cf^S wF J @a cfcUf nT O ~S@ cAr wF, @S S `an air of joyous freedom pervades these letters, freedom from the cold formality of Sadhubhasha; there is in them a ripple as of bright waters, a sunny playfulness as of young leaves' (An Acre of Green Grass, 1948, p 21), gA BUAT jq haɮ, @AO SS ɩ M jq cUfUq s cXoc T sw ogKAr wFR ɮF AaU, ASO l@US ASrS :

OU ~@r ~^@, rɰ rA a -- ~ , -q
~@r, jq An, ~ R jq ~c T | (ɦ, 1930, p 224)
op jq c@FerZAO @Av ~w R ~SA c@FAv An @rF ogK @a ~f@ AcAީ @ | A@ا cXoc jq cHS ASB@ A ASaS cfcU A AnްT UgS @ [1] | U, jq wF@H o S OAU @S ToFT Hf q rAv ~c^ | j ~w AO J ~@THF ~ZFSR j oS esT ~wO @ S | jZS ~ɩOZ بv Ri ~A@S q ~mp s cXoc cf cR Fw @ l@ SAS | @H DKl AcAa @ cU U A̮ ewfT TA mɰ R s | q TAco ASa@ TAmyk TU sAnT@ ASAB @ | AcrKH jce AnAcrKH wR jZS ~Acc@f c ~SoAS@ cU TS S | ~SF s-@S wF@ OS jAv AS:^ j@Av K Ac @Av i | A@ا J Qn s S @H AAS jq ~cɩ AAU@ Y sA A^ @ @B ~As ~ݨo cUq TS @S | wF AcK `The Reader Over Your Shoulder' ST@ ~SrɮSw^ ASr TSU j@ Tkq jq oS mha^ sASFɮ cAU s | A@^, T, cXoc mgAc@ة R ssF MBSF jq mha^F@ J wF -~ɮU ZAvaS | Amfݩ, @fv T AASq J OS T AcrmT i@ | jq i@ @a ~STA U cq AcSFɮ cp i@wɤf @a MJac aɦn | T^ i@@q AAS of m A^ i@ AH @S | jq H-AnAv@ ASިHgc AAS UA@ Z aS cUq J@ j@U ceU wF j@Tn cBAS@ k@ cU TS co Sq |

~SK ~cSf^S ST TS ~ | J AcK cXoc ~Sw TO ~T ~BS S :

~c@ wAa ~U بUA@ | gc AAS, j@T cq ceU gK c ... jAv ceU wFAF j@Av ~SSF H | j gU wF, ~ j gU w\ ~cSf^S ASBR ~ @ZS UZSAS |

-- (@Ac, ~ArS, 1354, p 67)

A@^, LLR s ~cSf^S, J gK
`transcends his audience' Av o j@H S s rɩpTUf cU@L @ػ J ~OS | @pQ, ~cSf^S ~SFAcmp j@Av mU@ pBS @q gUcS | cXoc @ZSq, jTS-A@ J Ok^ ~AgTS wFR, i@@ ~AnT @ s SB | ~SF i@ AcSf ~O ~AgBɩ ̬ASyA S U J OU S | ~ q rFq J wF aha^ PrcUAr T i ~ sAoTf T jce ~cF˻ AcrKH | j U-U ~crFq @ s cmc KHZ, AS:rN @M@ oH @ Z A̩U c SAcm | @Ac J S A pAcf TAv TS gU @ Jv S S, jq TT cF e@fH FBAUv B ~Agsw ZAB @ A ~Ue@A@ wFe @cfSe AS@Ke cA^ cOSAv ɮA@ة jZS ASgUgc TAS s |

@Ac @a @ H S AS wF s @ZSq mAo@gkAT ZJB c S, jq Acrɮ cXoc TS ɫ pb۩ OUAaU | AcrK sɰcި AcrAcFU USTkU@ AFAcgw oS ~oF@ Ac cp R kOSTk @q J jq oH j@Av S^AS@ fA ~BS @a | jq c J UZ oH AOAinR UQ @ s | sA McUF b@c BSFq T pA cXoc jq @Av J jq OSc @ػ Zv S | j sw Z s T aɦR @Ac @a @ ~AB Ug j@ mAgTS H, m̮AA, ~^ATU R ~S haU OsTݩ | j@Av ԰@A AOAi @R H R s :

~AT o OAaUT s AcrAcFU SS ~er ~T jq Qب R cASA^ Acgw esw @, A@ا sA A@aq WAv S U s U ~wF ~AScs@ TS Sc ... ~T UTkU@ AFAcgw HfAv @ gU sR S |

(4-10-60j cTS cA^@@ UZ AOAi @)

jZS oTn ~oZ sF rN Bɦ ZS U | sA rNAU ~Ue@A@ ~cS Ok^ cTp R s UR gU s S wv ~erAv TAw@ @AcWS ecSAv@ | cXoc jq c wF@ @Ac Amof ~O ~ASw ToFT AH @ OAaUS | c s J ~gfAޮ j wF FvS @AcF@ة @ T, ~ɦU of^S Hq co cO An | F ~erAv @ c- ca ~w cXoc ԮecA@ة, qAɮ, AF rfK@ j@Av c^ cFcY c@fA @ wS ZSAS :

TScmc fTfS roSf cU TScTB wATnq ~A@, @S TUq ~ATr S, gU AcXo, ~^ cFAnTk, c o BS-BfcS, A@ا wH-BfcS ATrq, ~cFcf AST ; ~ s @U TSK, jTS-A@ ~Ao@er TSK, AcXo jZS s^ ~AO^Sf mc, sk-BfcS jTS-@S gU Xgc q S, @UnT T^ TU A s S cU o S |

(@Ac, ~ArS 1354, p 1)

o AcAha^ rN w S, PSA@ sABU (sorites) swl ~f R ~cf s^H AAS of^S@q s TSF @aS AcK er S sw Sq | jq cq, of^S Os, AAS ceUgK AgAK@ rN R ArN BS ~Sgc @aS | @@-r rNcAU ԮTUOS AgK PA @ Aw AAS BrZ c, ~UO^ jce cf^S rq of^S@ cwf Tsɻ AaS | gK BSF AgK @ -- jq m:AXo ~SFn sAS AaU AS^ aX-~F@AT@ A@\S mq ~cXo | of^-cXoc j @ػ eAݩ @ AUS | cXoc QF q ZS of^f mwT ~F^ m :

AO^ T^ jq U@OA AcAco @vS ~T wFUOS UQHf : s TcUF, cp@S, ~AUF, ~AWS jce ToFްUf XoA | A@ا ~A A QAkH @S @MrUq W S ; gK rAha cA s A@a-S-A@a ~˻ ; jce ~ArsF c ~PcrF, ~mĩ, c k @ oH ASm S S AAF@ ~Ao@ةR | q, gK Oq |

(@Ac, ~ArS, 1355, p 43)

USTkU@ AF ~oFS@U ~AUF R ԰k ToF PX J TfTeA AaU | v gU wF UQH@ OAnASg @ cUaS Ԯ^, TpXo, BAvU AcKcm ~@KH @q gk | ~UOF TݮA^ cXoc AAr ASg TF j@@T A @AaUS cU s | A@ا k AcK@ B @ cU ~Ag J@ ZS ~Ao@ @AaU | Acgw ~SFT swf jce J wFfA ~Swf rArgkKH r Tr J@ j cF AH @AaUS jTS Ac @U ~ew c | A@ا rArgkKH @a SAa, jq T cXoc anTB U R s j@T Aha^ gKAr OS @ fAT gcaS | ArQ˻f @a Sf c BSF ArQ˻f T AS ~UOF sɻ AAS TWk ~ cɰU @Ac s ~AT Av ~^gKF HS @AaUS gQnq gK mha @ػ J ~m R QT @ c Awa | jq AHTf ɵU i ja ~B @v@بAv R B\S BUS g @ | jq ArQHBfcS cO BdA ~oF of^S J @Tf R LLR cXoc J X SSgc cXo SAS | ~SFA@, of^S AB Tw cɦc AT@ v@ب cXoc @a @ ew @ ASAhaUS | jJ BSq oFSS an r @ ~UOH cH UAQة AaU | q jJ wF@B, j @q, ~ɦwA^ @F ~mɰ ~w O ~ ~S@ cAr ~Sgk | T OMof cA mpAos cA j@S@L Qn J rF AaU S | mw@S R @@S ~ɦ~A OU ATrAaU J jq sw pBSf R TfQHoTf wF | WAS pA v R s, jq ATrH cXoc J f˻@ aA AwAaUS oHf@H r | J qeAB R ceU wF jZS jZS @ ~^ Tf mmrf | jZS Av STS U :

1. His poems exhibit a great variety of forms and subject-matter; he is versatile, not only as a writer of verse, as much as Picasso as a painter. Like Picasso, he has many styles, many periods, a vast store of material; and he can put across his slightest whim with the same ease and fluency.

(Tagore--Portrait of a Poet, 1962, p 43)

2. sTS AF Ac, TAS o @Ac AcR J cTAZ Acm@ ; sTS AOnOS A@, TAS @cFOS Acr¯ ~T cf^S | A@ T, JR ~a Ag^-Ag^ fA, sɻ R TSgA, ɰS Acv g, jTS haU ~A Qة, s ZUZArR ^A̩ Ar\@T |

(@Ac cf^S, 1966, p 11)

jZS qeAB gKH US ceUgK AT@US ~Scr ~S@ rA | q @H eAH @ػɩf | aAO Ac @T- w c@m^@ @f ~AT g̮TF A , jZS A ASrS | A@ا j eA ZSq cO ˻@ sZS AAS Ar-wA^U ASwkb IA AcK Or A AaS | wF cA c@F/c@F Ag ~SFk AcAc Fer cU R Os j s˻ mkA | sMAw@ c@F A@ R TF ~erAU (Protosis-Apodosis) ~SFSF ~^cS nTq FT ia jce FTݩ cA~f@H OA @q ASw | ʩ \UZF, Xop ZAS cq ~^cf@U OTAm Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965) ST@ s nA^䮡f w^Av cAAaU, cXoc, BS sha, ~\Acm AAO AaUS | gK wS w^S (deep structure) @ػ AAS OS aS @Ac cf^S @Ar R | ~T j@ ~oAS@ sAAgA@ ~˻SfA AgK ~Ssf qS-~@pA cUc | cXoc s@ cSS c AcSFɮ (texture) cU \UZ @aS, j A oTF | 1966- J c@FAcSF b@ s mcU ~O j@@ް^F TAT BU j@Ao@ c@FUe@ WSfgcS jce Ag wiS A̩U OU ~ | gK cA-Ag jq Rɩ ~Lfݩ Aw sAhaAO enT s c, sTS jq p^ :

oTn M^s kn s S ~O @ZS OFBFR S, jq oS j@v ~SgkA @ sw @US M^s esT : M^s gU, @SS esT A@ ~@KH @ ~T ; M^s gU, @SS ԮF@ BS ; wA p M^s gU S, @SS TfAO@--cF@ S, mf S, qBSFq F S, ~c ԮF S, S, ~\ F--~ ~crK, U@S AU ~AOUS i@ Aw (~T Q :Z AcK s ~prF)--~ cf^S@ jTS @R @cU @ U s M^s--s@ AAS T sMcS cUAaUS mwTF Accc^S-- @r AF rF S, UQ Tn ; S c @Ac AcK S, ASB jq ɽS A Acɰ @ J@ WA-AA cU U s @UUQfR F ~AgA@ |

(@Ac rn R ATn : j@Av ZU AOAi, r AFeZF 1378; p 85-86)

c@FAv kOS @ة (cf^S) ~SA\UAZ | A@A^ BSFq s j e@بU fAT OT@ S | cm䨩 gK j AAF@ R @A˩ @B R ZJB ~T ceU wF j ~w c ~SFn AZAS | Sw ArAcQf j@ ASEOq ~S^f c asyntactical wF cU cBS @cS | A@ا cF@H AST TS j Acf wF cXoc aɦ ~ @ Q UZ c AS | jZS cowTF ~@KHq j ~SkQ ~BS, jTS cw S@ةc Tcr |

cXoc OS c^F sɻ -B jq ATr̮ Bw ia | Tg @ T cF@ AcKSFɮ A@ec OT AOA@l T j@Av SfAArQTkU@ S jq STF R AS:r r@خfQH ^S cw M@s | Y sAq jq gK H c ~H, A@ا J T c AcKf jZS Am AcK A@ ocTS, sZS AcK cU eA@ ~˻ AS^ cm cFZF@q BfcF @ U ha S | @@ة UAUF jZS rAS@ MdKݩ ~Ar, ewf wA gms rff AmAha^ c Gestalt-~op a | jZSq cXoc cf ceU wF SS cST wnf |


1 jqZSq, cXoc T, AA^ wF TBw, cU--ް^ Anް-cm | ArTU 1967 ~oAS@ g̩f AF AcK j@Av ATS @A-AcA Tk cXoc ABgc jq oHAv ~FAo@ B A cUc U Amϩ @@BS AA^gKf UZ@ Acw @بAAaUS |

A@ Aw^ (jT, A, @; @U@ɩ, 1986) wS UZAv e@AU | cɮ-j @r: 15q BS, 2004 |

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