@Ac R sw UZ@خTB

cf OMof





...@f j s ha Tg, sZS AAS j gU @Ac AUZaS ?


cXoc c jq A @aS ~AT Oncf , A@ا jvq AaU @Ac An@ oS SfA, cXoc c BfcS TkUT^ | sJ gU @Ac UZS ~c @Ac@ gUcS, J cq J ~SBS | jJ j@n @ BSF, ~oAS@ cCU @Ac@ BSA @ BSF, SS @cFAcO TUOSXoA BSF AAS cXoc ----(??) @Ac An@ @r Fwf US | jq An@ A@\S R TH qAɮ me cXoc c AUZ waS J ~T @AcgcS-j | aɦ gɩ@بT ɮ @Ac An@ kAOw qAɮ (1989) e@US @aS | jZSR ~S@ F R sc | 1935 AZN 1 ~vc @Ac PnTA@ ~L@r @ | @Ac jce cXoc c BF @SF TfSQf B^ j@q AS |

@Ac T ca kAO q ɰ@ cXoc c T^ ATn, @f ɰ@ T S | @AcAcK@ gcSAO^ jJ ASB ToF @ةv ATU AaU ASAEOgc cU | 1935 AZN cXoc c c ɩr, T S ASr | o T^ ATn j@بAnr aJaS | cXoc c BfcS UQ @A s cAS s^ AAS ɰS cF ԮTc SfA Acrɮf AaUS | wA (1927AZ:) An@ ɰ@ AaUS cXoc c ~AB [@بT] | O (1968) T ca s ɰ@ TkS @Ac cXoc c | PcrZf (1941) cAK@f wɦ ɰ@ AaUS cXoc c ~AB cfɰ OoF | cr A@a eZF cXoc c Sf̵S BFAT |

AA@gc cCU AF @Ac gkAT@ ~UOS @U Z sc s sMgc d UR cXoc cq AaUS j oS AOU@ jce HrA | AAS T^ ATn @Ac ~Swf AaUS, T S ToF @AcL O cS ZAaUS, q J s @AaUS jq An@ | A@ا J ASB l s mf AS A@a TH aA ~a AcAg^ AOAin, mpAOH |

T^ ATn
@Ac An@ T cK T eZF T @Ac AaUS T^ ATn (1904-88 AZ:)| j@q ca, pf eZF @Ar ~ ASAv @Ac - @U ɩ, ԩAT j, jce SfU AS | j ~ j@cq T^ ATn @Ac AUZaS - O˻ cK AXf eZF TA ԮTv @AcAv | AXf cK @q T^ ATn AcAha^ AwAaUS | j @H AcK AAS ASB m @ A@a UZSAS | cXoc c ~T @AcgcS-j q :

cAUw, 202 ɮAcf ~FAgSF Ai@S @Ac sZS cAU U ZSR -ca cݮ AS, A@ا jq ToF ~cR ~S@v cU Awa | TS ~ l Sq - co q Tq AST-ec d AhaU; ~T AS@vT f jZS T S R AcG , ~ ~T F-OS q OoF - gɩ @TQfɰ R cfɰ - BSq dH, BSq AFcH R @Ac An@ ~S̽ |

(p 17)

~ T S (1916-87 AZ) cc cp^ (1978)-j AUZaS s,
TScc ~U @pA U@, AXf ca ~AT s ɰ@ q, A@ا ɰS, @rS v@@A AcAS@r Tm A@a @S cXoccc | ~T @Ac OS ~ݨ ~crF c ca - 1934 @ 1946 s^, ~ɻl ~T ~i @ AAr ca cݮ s^ | T cq @@Av @Ac c @A 1937-j mHް@ cO, lw @A TB ~T@ | ~T @AcZFA j@v @H - qeAB gU an AaUT |

(p 23-24)

T^ ATn AST ec ~c mgc-~UF @Svq co ~ɮU @H S | @Ac gcS-j j@ذ sJ WAS AaUS, J @-@ ~STS AcG - @Ac-TSSS AS SA@ T^ ATn cXoc c Tg | ASTAr\ WAS R 1940 AZN T^ ATn ~ gOsF s-ɰS @Ar ASd ST PnTA@ @Ac An@ | jZS @Ac An@ ~S@q AUZaS, sTS ~AT Oncf, BfcSS^ r, of^S , ^S PTn TZ | A@ا UQHfgc ~SAmϩ AcG cXoc c T S | jq \UZ @ s Sr @Ac cXoc c @Ac ~w @Ar ASd | MK 1348-j TA Sr I | wA c cXoc BS A @Ac AaUS ~AO^F@بT S @Bf SBdU qUT | @Ac- ~AO^F@بT T @Ac @Ar a O˻ cK AXf eZF | ~ j@cq AAS jq An@ UZS | cA@ OSAU ިSTH[3] | ~ SBdU ԰Av ~@Ar wS TA @Ac rT cK SBdU eZF |

ASd- @Ac-AU@ ~ A@a @MkUɳf@ ST U TAS@ c^oF, ASr ɮ, SfAUT cf -- sJ @SAS @Ac- UZSAS | aɦ AaUS TAUU TBT BSf@^ ɮ | sq @, ASd- T eZF kOS AaU cf^S @Ac | AcG - @Ac @ػ J ~Sf AcA | kcɻ eZF TA cf^S ԩAT @AcAv AcG - A @vQ @UR @ :

JvA@ Ta s JoAS@
U AT ~oAS@ |
c SA@ H @f s ,
cA w^ AcB |
v AUvAv UQH,
ASd An@ T ɰ@f T^ ATn AUZUS :
ɲA@ @cF @@Av UQH @S ~T w @r cU TS @A gAcKF Acm ~UOS @ ~T AXo ~crF @c S | jq j@R BSS @ s @cF cTS ^wsn@ r A O S cU ASd @cFo Acc BS R ˻@ة c^ ~^ S | o AcQ sn Tn@q Acc TS SB |

[ɰ@f, p 36]

ASd- pf eZF T^ ATn ~ m @ AUZUS :

A@ا jq ~˻fS rNTA sA SS ~A@ ASrS U nخ Rɦ BU r @Ac | v UU cAU @OS sA Accf @cF U ɩZf @pGSTR gwcwf |

ceU @cF c s @S sw Sq UU S SfU ASB AO jZS Ai@ T BS S, qAUv ɴ, @ ~̯ @ qeBf @cF FBɩ ~cn sF^ @U AAU Aha s cU ASB rkSFwg ASmU ASBq s jAS U sAS @H co jq s c@U @ػ QHrfU OT AAn m ~T jZS Tn aA Aa |

[p 137]

An@q T cK O˻ eZF gOsF cT^f @Ac- j@q T AoAS AS :
ceUr ~c jTS @@BS @AcR ~aS s cT^f ST @fA ~O s @Ac ~˻ Aco BSR AcF-cAXo ~wO | s ~ɰr cT^ H TB TAT @@Av U@ Tn eAr S, BSwSq UQF - cT^f OS q BSwS ~wTF iU ~ @S BSq @ S | cɻoF ~ cT^ AcoL@ @ |

[p202]

ASd ~Acgɻc T 1940 AZN 17~vc AA\U @ cXoc c@ UZ j@Av AOAi T S AUZaS, T^cc ceU @Ac em @ɰk jwUS ?

(~SĨ T S AcrK eZF, ɰS ިU@ O^, 12 cK 2-3 eZF, p 19)

gOs (1909-69 AZ) @Ac T eZF @Ac R LLR AAS cf S ca @Ac- UZSAS | ~O ~T BAS s @Ac T eZFAv gOs R F^ AcS TkUF a S | rKɽBS An@Av T@ R ɰ@ AaUS | gOs cXoc c TA@ Acha F^ ~T@ AUAZgc BASaS :

wU coU AXf eZF | AXf eZF ШAUA cXoc cc sfA ~T Ai AUS | Z T ~AT cc j@Av @Ac AS cXoccc A̩ ШAUA @AcAv A Aq, cXoccc ~F^ ~ AaUS jce cc @AcAv cɰ A AUS |

[ 28 BSA, 90- AUAZ]

@Ac An@ T eZF @r cXoc c@ fW n (3 ~vc 1935) cf^S J TT BASAaUS | @wBAv cAAaU U AZ, ~ AS ToF j@T Acr ~UOS A@Al Acm@ | TS ~w @ j@Av AcrK @A cf^S@ iS AaU | sq @, kcɻ eZF @Ar jwBS @Ac ToF ~^F ATU UZ TO^ cwOf ԮTA aɦ c AcK AAS T^cF @AaUS | cf^S oS ccF AaU wFa^ BL ~ɩpA s mofS ~a s˻gc TsFɻ Q @ @AiS | jce T J jA wa |

cXoc c q T wFa^ A@ Zc IJ@AaUS | j-AcK J ASBq A :

~T cI AaUT of^S R ~^r ~STSf AcdXo LLR, wF@Ac AUg ~ A Sq - sAR @\SR @ AAS s Tn AS r@ cFcoS, j@ SS cer @Ac ~˻ Jc wF@Ac - ~ɰFrA ~Q-a^ kBA r @ش @c S |

[ ~. @. p 16]

wF@Ac AcK cXoc ~rg AcK ~T A ~ɮc | @Ac- T c AAS ASB An@ aɦR AO-j AH@بT SFU R Ac@ػ BA AaUS | j A@a qAɮ R sc AH@بT SFU (1899-1978 AZ)-j AO j @بA ca R ~SFSF mpAAOn (1978) cqAv | sq @, T cK AXf eZF cf^S cfA@ @cF TUOS cXoc c AUZUS :

cfA@- ~A@ A@ @ j@Av @ cUc ~a | wF ~S@U @Ac UZc F jq J FcS | j-cq @ةU @Ac ~a UW , a^ U R OT@ ATU Acmq BS | s @AcU wgf, U wF AUZUR QA AaU S | jTSR TS s wF AUZUq ~T ABl cAr |

A@ec cf^S A ceU @cF AO-j TUOS AAS BShaS :

wF @Ac cf^S SSAS | S Sc ~Ao@ J kHq ~a | qBSF T S cɰ aS | 1927-28 j , ~ɻl @\UU T , ceU @cFAF SS rA ~Acgc T Sq | Zc @T cCAU @Ac@q j ~\ c jZAS cAXo AHA R ~A@ ZU R wa |

[ ~ArS 1345, p 72]

~Sgc TO^ cwOf (1904-88 ?) TS Ac AcK cXoc c AUZUS :

c ~T Acrɮ, sAS @ AAS wF-@Ac AUZ ~̯ @US, AS @q J @AcL-rA @p ~AgcFA; TS sS a^ ASJZ Aha^q J@ ~ɦ @ ZAaU; wF-gkAT mofS AAS TZ بv TS @ cU US |

[, MK 1345, p 69]

jq ~ cF T cK pf eZF @Ar cXoc wFa^ AcK ~UOS |

~wq cU a s cXoc rK BfcS ~Q @aS s ~ɰFrA ~Qa^ kBA r @ش @c S | o q S, JO r@ ~S@ @Ac AcK J ~A AaU a^-PrAUF | j@T @S Ac@ػ @ mH @ SfU woF cXoc c A @AcAv AUZAaUS :

~S A rN c fc, ~AT gUcA
A@ا a^ ?
(j a^, c a^, T c @JiU @i AJA -
~Ae g S AZAU AaUT,
       a^ q wAa mw sc AJA !)
T a^ Ai@ S SfU - j@ ~S A
                   TS S |
AcSf, AgB cU, ASAU, ~A g aU c @ ~S TS
A@ا ASAUq j@ Arc ~F^ ~g
a^ A ~ASR ASAU, j@ TI TI gU sS @S ?

~T @Ac T c ~UOS A ~A | T eZFq @Ac NcɻoF ArST mQAcfS c^ cXoc c AUZUS :

@Ac AUZ U sTS AcrK j@Av QT AS B^ , AcXo @Ac gw @ UR TAS j@Av B^w QT BS | ~Ao@er i@q O s @Ac c m ASA fH j@v AcK ~cXo, s o-aJ s, s cI s - sTS @ R TS s-cpA sF ~T cAI wAH A@ rAS@ c^ - ~AcArF @c a^ Z I | ... jTS sA s @ش ABڮ @, ~AB I T ~Ag A@ Tiger ! Tiger ! Burning Bright' @Ac ~˻ @f ; U lQHl j-@q cU i : ~˻ ! ~˻ ~c @f ! AF-AF R aɦ @S Sq | ~AcArF ~oF@ QT c^ ^ @Aa S : J ~oF@, J cq S |

[p 38-39]


cXoc c R T S (1941)
@Ac jce @Ac i@ AcK cXoc c jq T^cF T^ ATn A@ec T S @ةZAS AaU cU r | cm䨩 AcAg^ cFA@ UZ T S s ncAU A @Ar a, @Ac @S @Ac AcK Zc j@v haɮ c l UQ @A S | jTS A@ ASB AcKR AAS ɮfS | ~oAS@ cCU @Ac O gc LLR j-AcK T S ~w TA@ jce A^@ | 1941 AZN Swɰ AA\U @ UZ j@Av n AAS cXoc@ r @aS, " @Ac ɰ@ Ac ~T ST ~ @AS ZcS ? cFv ɮF@ Z |"

~Am̩ @H jq BSF S s c @ @Ac- ɰS AcrK sF @ aS S | ~ɮU J ~ @S lq Sq | ~wq cU a s cf^S ceU @cFAO-j fW TUOS @AaUS AAS | e@US AcG T S ~SAmA AAS AB | j-AcK T S ASB A@ا ASd | 5-10-38 j cXoc c@ AUZaS :

@Ac Aa | ~S fW TUOS jZS gUgc ަ AAS, AcA@ ArT BSF T ~gc | ~T TS ~B@U dc AcdXo sq AUZS S @S j@v TkUF ~a, - ~rT T^ TUOS cq gU |

[~SĨ, p 9-10]


@a@Aa T 8 ~vc 1938-j kcɻ eZF AcK AAS AcG @ BASaS :
cXoccc TUOS j fW s j@ c rK ha S | TI TI i@A ަAa |

~SFSF @Ac AcK T^cFR \UZswF :

@Ac ~S SvAU a ~Q cr gU UwU | ~T ~cmv T SvAv T | v@ sA TAxv@ nostalgia gcS U ASd | ofScc @AcR gU UwU c rK @@Av UqS j@v ~ɦ cU TS U | v ݩ ofScc wA@ c T O | ~S s v cT^f haS ~r@cc jce ~AT AcOAU jce AOA^ |

... T:mU @S @UB O@f y @AcH BfcSS^cc T ~c OAw ic co | ZS cArU-cɮf BfcSS^cc T ~^:H g rAU@ T ~c c@ ToF cɮ cJoc, @fvީ@ AS^ rAS@ r @c, ɰ Wɦ O SQnU@ sc c^cmR c |

[ p 42]


@Ac ASAT UZ@ ToF ~S@q j@ ~SF @Ac a^ @S S | ~AB cAFSR ްF UZ cF @Ac UQ ~STS @ AcG , TAS ATU ԴfScc @AiS F/BvU j ~S@ Z | ~c ԩAT A@ ~T mf c TAH@ ?- ~ H c of^S jce T S | of^S BfcSS^ @Ac AcK ɮfS AaUS jce jq ~Sw co mA@ AaU | A@ا cXoc c BSq ~Swf AaUS | cm䨩 @Ac T eZF UZ@ jq q @Acq TpF An@Av OU @U jce g BSFq AcrK eZF @Ar | wA sw @ BfcSS^ cXoc A @Ac | TI ~ɻl TpAcf c @ػ A@a er Z AUR ~Sw @TAS | ~ of^S @Ac @ػ cXoc T AcS qAɮ @U ިU (1945) w^ jce @Acq op ~a | @TQfɰ OoF AUZaS s :
gAcKF ~crF cXoc c J [of^S] @Ac ~F^ ~Swf iAaUS | @S jce A@ @ ~T BS Sq |

[ "@AcgcS/r-q", r AF eZF 1381, p 121]


AcG
ʩ \UZswF s ASr ɮ @ZS @Ac UZSAS | A@ا J AcZFɩ @m @Ac T UqS j-sw OJ U @m | jq CAAv AS @Ac ޡT cK (@A@ 1346) Av @Ac AUZUS of^S jce AcG | WvSAv \UZ @aS @TQfɰ, A@ا @f @ػkn j UQ v BSSAS |

~oAS@ @Ac AS cF-Ac ~S@ T @AcgcS ~^ ToFq fTcXo @ S | j@c j@BS aXwɯfs AS AcZFɩ @S @Ac ~SK ި ~cUcU AUZaS | AAS US ~ɦ Bw A@ecA^ ~ATg S | J Av @Ac ~@r ^F jce AgA @Ac 8T cK 2 eZF c | ~ATg S AcK gcK ~v r@ (1988)-j AUZaS, Ai@ @S fTZ U Ag Aw wUAT S v cU r | ~ATg AaU q fTZ ~cAmϩ (p 78) | oɰ R mvFAUS@ T cAU @ AaU s ~c jq c F wSwH/ ~ɮU scf mS gpA ~AcmHf CA ~ATg S AcK j@Ao@ Bw AUZaS | AAS ~T sc@U ~ɦ : IJA@ rS (r 9BUq 1988)-j ~ATg S BASaS ... qASq q cFA AsAS cXoc c @Ac T A@ @S j@ eZF "qSAT@" @Ac aA J@ ZAS@v Ac@ UAaUS | @H q "qSAT@" @AcU AaU jo-Ro @ B @ j@ j@ UqS ~eU TA (p 25-26)| ~ɮU @Ac Av ST Ag^ AaU, @ ~wq cU a | i@ @MkU AScpA BSF ~T jAU Xop @UT :

~@r ^F
(T S-@)
jZS cɩɮ S @JO Acc,
rkSF@r ZAc Z PSFT cU@ U--
sq c cU@ TpF TS AcXS |
cAUJ B @ Aa wgf FS ||

          - Zf @ZS OU wa
UZަ c rK @
          ~ɰ BB q @U ;
cFf @ rkSF Q Aw |
cR @ U S@
~prF S r©
g U ASAU |
ݩ sZS @ش T wa ZFA gUc -
rkSF, ZSf, H ~ Tɩpm A wa ~@r j@ ;
~c cɩɮ j@ - ɮ TS cɩɮ |
... ... ...Tp Ti O f Wɮ |

AgA
(oFSOJ-@)
~@r @HU g @
~F ~EOs I
nT j U Amϩ |
~AT q OZ Z - ^F TS -
          cv ~Jo AO

BSUT TMf JA@ :
          "jqc cɩ oJ
WkAH O AS TW ~ s @@
(-ToF f ksF sS -)
rK sA s c J ?"

ASd wU r^ Ag | @Hɻv@-f
TocTT ި ި gT@ AW
H mNo jU | AcAr ɮɰ
UfS wU A@mS | T A ArZ
ST jU ^ Aa^ ~rfS TMS ~cɰ |

cXoc c R ~AT Oncf (1955)
~crF ~ATg S AcU cFAnT | O r@ rK @q AAr @Ac ~ cF-Ack AcK SS, J AS ZS PA a SS wɤf, w ia AcAg^ qr@بU | AS @ JO r@ s^ ~AT Oncf BfcSS^ cXoc c ~Ao@er AcZFɩ @Ac @Ar a jq An@ | @Ac UZ c^ @ ~w s^ T S jce TA@gc mNo gK TZoF R j@ sBF | cXoc c ~S@ T TSR Z S S @S @AcAv @ @Ar AaU | sTS ~AT Oncf j@Av @Ac AAS AUZaS s "cpA R co "AO"-j cAAaU, Ai@ TS ަa S" (~ @ p 19) | ~ɮU cpA @Ar @Ac ~ArS 1350-j eZF |

ʩ pf cK (PcrZ 1345) @Ac An@ TUOS eZFAv \UZ @ | jAv@ cU s ~oAS@ cCU @Ac qm | q jAv ~oAS@ @Ac ~^US SSTAZ A@R pA ~@KH @ | cf^S @ T S s^ sw oS @Ac jce TUO@ @cFAO^ Acop ~a jq eZFAv | SfO kAOnAv Xop U :

cf^S i@ب AF m 1
BfcSS^ r
@Ac @
8
~AB ceU ATU LL 18
of^S mw 26
T S ceU @Ac 30
~c f ~qݨc @cF Acc R Acc @cF 39
cXoc c @Ac R TB 48
AcG ɰ@ Tf 60
UfUT ~oAS@ ceU @Ac 63
TA ɴ @Ac ~Scɰ 65
TkS @Ac @Ac R ~Scɰ 71
ɰ@ @Ac i@ A

@Ac An@ ިS eZFAU WJvU ɰ@f Ͱs sTS To @, TAS j-@v cI ~Aco S s j AOU@ j@ jce j@@ | gK TZoF gK "@Ac An@ jce @AcgcS ~ɦ - j-v AaU p@ | @Ac AaU j@BSq ɩ-o - cXoc c | ~S@ sw @UR ~-@ mQ wF S |" ("rg cArr", @U@ɩ cXoc c eZF 1968, ~AA ɰ@ ~dH@بT @ Sr , p 26)|

jZS j@v @MkU TS Bw | cXoc c HwA ~oH jce BSF BS qha @ AAS A@ @ZSR ~So @AaUS TAS@ c^oF@ @Ac BSF ~c BfcSS^@ PcrZf BSF w\ A@ec SFɮ ? of^S ~T ԴSF nTAH@ @Ar PcrZf | cXoc l U BfcSS^ w\-SFɮAU J BfcS@Uq @Ar | ~crF jZS j AS B\S-@\S AS˻@ |




|| 2 ||



A@ا c, s-@S Pc Uq @, s-@S U@ j@Av ZJAv @AcR sA cA @ AvR QHswF, ~ j-@T ~@Am@ STS ~ ~S@ ZAa ~AT - @Ac jce ~SFSF An@R | ~S@c gcAa, jq c S aS @Ac AS j@Av e@USw^ HS @c - A@ا ~T ~ ~S@ @\S T jAvR AO@U rkSF IU qU |

(~ @, p 17)

@Ac An@ ~T @cU kc @q AcZFɩ ~c @Ac sJ AcZFɩ @a, J @q ~UOS @A | A@ا jTS c @Ac ~aS sJ @Ac j@cq Tn AUZaS ~O cf@U @Ac AXo aS | ~c @ش @ش ~aS @Ac Bw S UR ~SF Qn @fATS | ~ cr A@a @Ac A waS | jJ AcK cXoc c AcrK @MkU AaU - R XopA TH | jq T sR ~c U @Ac AcK A@a cU ~w ~ @@Av F A i@ pA ~@KH @ Oq | ~ArS 1342 @ POn 1367 cN s^ jq JAOr ca A@a cAr T @Ac ceU UZ@ eZF ASr JݩA\Ur BS T | ToF TAU @Ac-TUO@ cS AArBS | ~crF jq AU@ @ | @SS, ~B@ i@ ~BS Sq s rl@بT TZoF @Ac ~Acgɻc SAT TZoF ST | ~Sgc cXoc c J rK mpAOH Am @ wF @Ac @ \UZ @aS jce q T^cF @aS s, jAv @S ިdK aXST, c STAv rK s^ TS @ i SAS | sq @, @Ac T TAU @Ac Ag c - MK 1343-j J Av @Ac, Aha jce Ac @Ar | jZS cU s s, cXoc c AO ~wq wA An@ rK cK Ag c j@Av @Ac AiAaUS | cXoc c J@ BSS s, UZAv J TS:k a, cU s gUq Uwa, c :Z AcK jq s, @wB ~ cdc S | @AcAv ~SFn @R @Ar U ZAr c | ~AT ~STA @U ASBq @R Ai A | (r AF eZF 1382)

@Ac a Ag c BASaS s AAS ASBq ɰ@ AccOS BSF J ~ J qU Z S | @a@Aa T @ a cf @Ac ~ | @Ac An@ T ca @S TAU @Ac Sq cU q-j@BS ~Agsw @AaUS |

@Ac j@cq AUZaS j@T @Ac cS j@r BS | jq fW ST AU@ ~aS ~c^f SFU ~dS gOs ~r@ ATn ~fT ~TU T ~S r ~U TT ~UɴfS ~U ~Bɰ ~S Acc qA^ cf OMoSf @Bf SBdU qUT @A^O^ WK AO WK Sp^ gOs Hc@بT TZoF Hc co WK g i@ب̩ AHgkKH ~Os cv@pG cdH c (Sf^S Oncf) AcgkA OMof AcT TZoF TSf r PTnf cf srɰBfcS gOs T c T^ rTZF r WK SɴU @ AXor S rfU@بT mr̵S fUU r | cU cUF, jJ cq @Ac SS ~c q ~˻ @Ac OOɻ @SAS, A@ا ~SF Qn AcAr |

~TU T s @Ac j@c @Ac AUZAaUS @ cXoc c ~T sMcS-j \UZ @aS | A@ا g i@ب̩ r@خec jq FAv ~ShOA̩ | Sf^S Oncf cdH - ^ F R sc gɩ@بT ɮ-j kcɻ w^ | ~crF Sf^S mSTR j@c jq An@ @Ac AUZAaUS |

j@T ~SF @Ac AcK ~UOS @ ~w ~@Av F A i@ pA ~@KH @ Oq | @Ac BS UZ@ ceUr TA sXo rA AaUS | gKɩALL@ cA^@ TɬBU ݰ [OMof : 1926-71 AZ] j@cq @Ac AUZAaUS | c @Ac S, cXoc c a^ AcK Ac@ػ ~erwH @AaUS 1353- ~ArS eZF | @Ac-SFA@-cA^@ ~S r (1928-71 AZ) R TAsXo AS S | Sf AS:rAK U (1370)- @Ac ~S r OU s U@v @Ar @Ac MK 1364- eZF

cFm OU s U@v ~AT @ AOAS |
v, TSK Ag, v @c w, @ AASq
Z sc S - AcA v@ O iJv,
PSr cFc A@a ^ c BTa UUv |
Bva mc@ c, ASAKXo ɦ ~SwS,
Tpln SAݩ mrf Sf ~S ~SF cS
BfcS ASF ; ~ OZ ɩ
@AUT-~\S ~J@ ɩ-Bw Z aJR |

jq g M -OU s A@ -
AS^ SwHF, ~a pAcf j@@H ~ZFɩ ~OS,
BfcS pAcf@, TSK gF@ A@aq c S |
~BS U sS f BUc QAH@,
j@AS ASg sc | c jq pA fT
rkSF mSv@ب g A ~Ac@U T ~SF @ش Sq |

sJ @Ac j@cq AUZaS ~O @Ac UZ c^ @SAS, J @ɴ@ @ɴ@ j-AcK ABɮ @ cI s s c cU @H j@ S | @ @ Qn AaU ɰ@ A ~AgTS, @ cU ASa@ ɮfS jce @ش @ش BPSA@ Tɰr Ag^ @ cUaS |

1352 U MK eZF ~c^f SFU Ԯf TA , s T AS UqS U j o ~^@ R o g/ , c @AiS A@S/ Y AZ, TH @A B | jq ~c^f SFU ~T@ cUaS :

cXoc c @Ac AO AaU ~w @q | A@ا R UZ TS @S Aw co @AAS, co jq @H s @Ac-wɤf@ ~BPSA@ jce "AcXo" @cF^f cU TS | cXoc c AAO c @Ac UZ ~T^H R l co @AAS, @Ac AUZUq a ̩ ~SFn | @Ac- ~T Tn j@Av @Ac cAAaU, R s AiAaUT cXoc c AcrK ~So |

~r@ ATn s j@ذ @AcR AaUS, @ ~B ~S@ gU waS | @Ac ~ArS, 1354- eZF @Ar J ԩAT T cSr/ ~A ~Q/ jq @ AUZ s wfyT cɩɮ ! ~T @MkU ~r@ ATn ~T@ AUAZgc BASaS :

@Ac An@q o S, oHgc ~AT @cFOOɻ @ ASB@ Ac̩ @AaUT | ~T @Ac oS - jce c j@Tn - Hwf AaUS ~dH@بT @ | cXoc ccq cUS ~T @Ac T a wFOOɻ @ AO | ~A oc @q cUS |

AXor S ~SHS @AcAv @r@U ~ArS, 1352 | j T mc@ U : ~ A@aq S,/ Bɰ@f C ~@r;/ mH cU,/ QH@ r g |

jq @Ac pf, mc@ rK Av CA U BfcS Z ɳ/ SfUg mS S | AXor S SfAUT AUZAaUS, cXoc c rNAv c cFcY jq @H jAv@ cU SfUg @ cUS | AXor ZAr TSq AB S | @SS, J oH cXoccc Ai@ ~T TS @Av s ~oAS@ةT rNq sAw A ~T@ oSF @aS | @Ac ~ S UZ @H @S TS-~AgTS S, ~AH An@ AcrKgc BA ަ |

r WK j@cq Tn @Ac AUZAaUS | ޡr cK AXf eZF (POn 1356) TA @AcAv ST | ~T r UZ fW n ~erAcrK jZS Xop U :

... wT aAv Zwި ~Aa sZS, c^Ψ AOAi Zc BSUT "@Ac" ~T UZ cAa | ~AcrɮF jq Tsɻ ~ vS iUT, @U@ɩ jq MUT AT | rgTS "@Ac" U TUv R ~SF c @Ac ~TR ST TA Z TkAa c r - a ASB UZAv@ Z Awq OT@ UwU, jce Tm ~ɰ ASTK O@ wU | @SS, UZAv TS U sS ~SF @ UZ, ~T S | a q @AcAv jZS ~T TS ~a; Ai@ OA\Ur ca R | AaU :

jTSR-s AS AaU S S
sZS T OUS ZAa
AcFXwf aUS |
jTSR Awa T, sZS
~geAU T
aAa AcrT |
BAS S jZSR qc ZU
TAS @ A@ @ S
s c gAc, o TS
T OZ @dH |
pf UqS j@Av rN ~ ޡT-K UqS ިvq Uv A cXoc @Ac aAaUS ~SF , ~ ~T ~wo ~TS co U | fS @a cXoc sZS SAaUS s ~AT QبNo Aa, AAS S A@ ~ j@c AcAm S jce cUS - @Acv A@ j gUq AS ? , fS@ ~AT BSq, gU, A@ا Rv ~T @ S, ~T @Ac S !

... jce, jq ~AgTS, @Ac AUAZRAS ~ @SAS, cXoc ZR @AAS c ca |...

~B ~crF cI A s ~T ~AgTSv AaU Tkb TS, SS UZ@ UZ j@v-~ov @UT OUS @S K Sq-q, ce OS Acc@cS ɰ@ v ~crF@Hf | cXoc s Rq @AcAv gUq OAaUS @S ^ Sq | ɦ (@SS, TO R @AcAv T Tq cA AwAaU) dHAv@ TS @ ~ cU SAS eroS mc, v@ب U A@aq cUc @ة S |

@Ac s ~ AUAZAS, j AS ~crF ~T Ac^Tn ~Q AS @ZS | A@ا ~BR s^ ~Q jq gc s, AScɻo T cXoc A^oF @ ~@H ASB@ cA @Aa |

r WK Ai@q AUZaS - ɦ cXoc c a ~w erAo i AcK @Ac@ BSSAS | @SS, j-AcK s @BS @Ac @ cUAa c mpAOH Aa, F@ ~Agک r WK @ Ag^ | j-AcK SfU woF jce ~U@̵S r AccH gɩ@بT ɮ-j kcɻ w^ Xop a | ~U@̵S@ cXoc c j@c j@Av rN cU cUAaUS | A@ا ԩdHF fS AAS AB SAS | SfU woF 30r Sgc : @AcgcS cAK@f 2 "v@ v@ mpA" AUZaS : ~T iS pf @AcAv cXoc c ̩ Ai A@a eroS r AAaUS | @ةv @f erAo @AaUT TS Sq | c ިS:A̩ c "AccpA" ST q @AcAv (s T UqS, ԴASr Acoc T @r SAAr j/ wgcf U...| @Ac An@ TA c ~T ZAS@v cST AaU jce AAO TU A@av AS^T^ S AaU cU ~AT cr lب\U co @AaUT (p 55-56)|

~\ c ~ @ ~S^ cwOfR AUZaS J c.c. (30r Sgc : @AcgcS cAK@f 3, 1989) OS | rf Sr AOAi T̬l ~S^ cwOf@ ɰ@ cXoc c Av rN AcK ~A @ BASAaUS | A@ا ~S^ cwOf T, ~\ cݮ ~ ~\ AcF j@v Aco jq, ~ moɻ @ZS ~gc S | ~AT @Ac UqS v j@c UUqS T ocS ~J@ o wU cA AUT |... ~EOs AcK ~T @AcAv @Ac An@ c a AwAaU | ~ q g g ߨAO q AaUT (p 50-51)|

rN-eroS cF @Ac Ae jce Hc^ r ~Agک j@q @T UR AAn kH ~Uɰ | @Ac Ae BASaS :

j@c U@ qT @cF Sv@ j@Av mc@ ~Scɰ iq | ~Scɰ 7 Tn @AaUT | j@Av UqS AaU Like Dahlias of the sleeping moon.' ~AT ~Scɰ @AaUT WTS O^ AU Uvq| ... RJ ~A AaU ~S | ԦAU Uvq AS a^ @SAS | AOAi jU | fW AOAi | AUZAaUS @AcAv aAa | A@ا j@Av rN cU @ Oq | @S ? @HR AAS cFZF @ AAaUS | @AcAv AAS j@Avq rN cU @S | ...WTS O^ بU Uvq - ԬبUv RJ sw |

Hc^ r j-AcK s mpA U :
~T AXf @Ac sZS @Ar ha @Ac (j@Av TZ, POn 1361), ZS cXoc c BASAaUS s, @AcAv cFcY @بT aɦA TZ OU S - @SS, BfcSS^ ~dAHT SFU TZ jce ~S rNc^ cFc @aS | ~AT @AcAv o j@Av TZ sZS AUZUT, ZS c.c. Av AScɻAO @US | jZS gc ZAa rN ASAv S UvUR |

@Ac An@ ިS eZFAU WJv WJv ~S@ To OT@ Uw | S^S ATn @Ac AUZS ? J ASAAcAU @Acw^ Y TUOS @AaUS cXoc c | @Ac Qf @c cɮBfcS OMof, B [̵S] ~Os, Mf^ ATnR j@@U @Ac AUZaS | B c^oF @Ac-AO @q c @BS BSS ?

cXoc c J rK mpAOH T@بU gOs ST j@BS @Ac @ \UZ @aS, sJ @Ac T UqSvq ~AT j@Av SocAS S AaUT - AF@, AUA@ , A@ا q T @S AXf ~wTS ~ WvAS |

jq @Ac AHA AcK A@aq BAS S | cXoc A\UAZ @AcAv ST j@بr - PcrZ 1357 cN @Ar | @AcAv @@ UqS U :

jc wfyT j@بr ަU
@R Sq @@
~T-BT | @, @,
~T wfyT j@بr ަU |
sA@ @q @S ɩ
I Ar ~
dQ oU |
      @, @
~T cp^ wfyT @@;
@S AZ @c U wa v@ Z |
q Z ~T wfyT iU I ?



|| 3 ||



...@Ac cc ... ceU gK @Ac UZ @BAv ia o cFAw hOr kH S, fAT j@Av ~^US, s TZn AOA a @Ac An@ | ~AT BAS S v ~^US c TީS, @Ac AcK @S ~^US c A@S -AcKR ~AT ASAEO Sq; - c ~^ @Ac jBSF AcrK @S wMc Ac @ S; ~ɮU @ U AaU ~S@kU R An@Av gwFcS ; ~ ~T @pAL jv@ب s l IJ@ -j@c gU @ @UR Tv ~AT Ai@-Ai@ WɦAU@q oAaUT |

(~ @, p 16)

@Ac wMcT gkAT@ AcK Aɩ-ɰ@ jq Ac mgcq j@v AcSf | j AA@ dL @ػ cq OS | j@ Ac ceU TA@n ToF cɻAo@ ~UAO U @Ac | gɩ@بT kAOw qA @ ~wq cU a | aɦ, wMT gOs @Ac cf^S (1985), TfSQf AS Z @Ac e@US (1987-89)-j STR jq @ s | sɰcި AcrAcFU @ @Ac An@ AcK j@Av wcKHR a | @Ac, @AcgcS jce cXoc c AS cO cAr AUZaS ~r@ ATn | J ~@KH-Ac@KH X^ AAU a SS OS | aɦ, \UZF AcAg^ T UZ A@Hr S @TQfɰ OoF gK TZoF SfU c rT TS cf^S S ArcSH ~S^ cwOf ީf TZoF mpAOH |

@Ac An@ ~haFgc BA۩ ~a @AcgcS @rS | ~crF Tr ATn @q @rS AcK cXoc c l UQ @A - cAq @AcgcS wɦޫS ~w mAީ AaU w^@-TUf sZS cXoc c WAKgc @r@ | jZS @ T cU ASgH U TUv Av KU p @Ac cq - ~AO^F "~T" R ~T "j@Av @" - O ~S TkUF JOr @A @v wU @Ac mvU | , BUgc, AcG @r @US J T @cFw^ "crf R ~vAT" vq w^@TUf r jce rK ~cS (~T sMcS, p 95)| jv 1932 AZN @ |





\UZA

1| ~T @AcgcS, r̰f r, 1381, wT WK A p 19 | j @ vf@ jce c^ TkU i ~ @ ST A\UAZ |

2| ~ @- cXoc c AUZaS : -T ~T oH AaU ASAZU g @Acq T @Ac-An@ (~Tcɰ @ j@Av BA @Ac c Zc c ca R ~Tq p^) A@ا ~S@@U , cBS cɦۨsF c ~SF @S wcK@ UZ AaUT b@ @ j@ TAU j@Av @Ac-An@ c @S ASr r@ @S j@ T | j@BS TAU ~Sw b@ r ~@U ~w - WvSv OT@, ^ Sq A@ا j-AcK ~SF @S F ~AT @ZSq BS AAS (p 15) |

cB^S c^oF e@AU ceU TA@ AF (AcrAcFɮew 33) AU@ @S TAU A @Ac An@ \UZ Sq | c 1860 AZN T T ArO^ ATn @Ac@بTcUf ST j@Av TA@ An@ @r @S | j rF AcK cU "cf @Ac l@KoS R AcXo @cF@ O X BSTUf @UFHcoSq jl An@ O rF |" "@Ac@بTcUf" @ir jq r@Av @ :

^Kݩ NcKe e AOTocS |
SS̮T@fHɻ @Ac @بTcUf ||
@Ac @A@, 1349, AcrK nɦn cXoc c AUZaS : @Acq co ceUr - jTS A@ Tm g̩cK - T @Ac-An@ | j-@ wc @ cUAa S, F Acq cUAa | j An@Av A@\S T sZS ~T TS ~ ZS ~T j ~gF˻S c^ W A^o AaUT, A@ا j-oS An@ s BS AaU TH jq s A@aAS ToFq - ~ @@Av @Ac-An@ ceUr Z AU, ToF ~crF T^ ATn R gOs A ASdq cɻw \UZswF | j aɦ Av-
Germ-j ~S@H BfcH ST j@Av An@ A@aAS dH UZ@ @cFOOɻ AcrS @ c^ wa | A dH @Ac srf -j@Av TZn @Ar ha | AnT ST j@Av prF ިAm@ Av eZF ~T Aa | jAv Ai@ An@ cU co U S, TI-TI j@-j@ ha @Ac cS @ i@ BSAS A sR co j rF | ~Tcɰ @ @Ar j@Av BAv @Ac An@R ~T A@aAS o Aha | jAvR ST @Ac | c rK cAa j@@ ST j@Av An@, jAvR o @Ac | j T eZF \Sf Av @Ac ~T gU UwU | (p 111 j@@-j ɰ@ XoLL c )|

~Tcɰ @ @Ar @Ac An@ cU s ~Tcɰ @ S, cɲcq @ 1941 AZmvN ~wmv T @Ac BSF j@Av TA@ An@ @Ar | ASBS AaUS ɰ@ q^UU w^f TwSUU UUgq rq kHFAU jce ̩gq rq | oS @Ho AaUS TwSUU UUgq rq | @@ ca An@Av i s | An@Av ~SFT PcArF A eZF j@Av @ BA @Ac AA^ ~Scɰ @ |

o @Ac AS BA AXf An@ @AcU@ AaU AXAQ@....@r@U 1958 AZ: | jR ɰ@ AaUS ASBS : B^ r r UU jce sgq r | jAvR @rmU AaU cɲcq | 1970 AZmvN @ ofd fZ-j ɰS ~Tcɰ @ cha |

1967 AZmvN @ r UU @Ac ST ~@Av An@ ɰS @aS | An@Av XoS @S Tr srf | ~AT jc F BSF gUgq FvU @a Hf |

jZS ~@Av @ \UZ @ BS | cXoc c AUZaS s ~ASU (@pG gOs) jJ@ AU A@شAcmv aJ AcrU ~Q TUv-AOn - j@BS Z cUUS @ T | T eZF TUvAv ~B Ug - c haAr\f ~ASU@pG gOs (~U Acv ST TAo@ AXo) cAHABF@ Ar\f TU AAO ST |

3| B AUAZ Ԯ gOs (1972) ިAm@ ~a : @Ac T eZF cc SfAUT@ @AcAv @Ar | A@ا AXf eZF BSF A̩ X@ @AcAv @Ac @Ar AS | WvSAv cc@ fcgc ~Wɩ @ (p 19)| rf F^ A @ BS q s X@ A̩ AS | @Acc^Ψ AAS m:@p B U cXoc c @a AiAaUS | jq ~@Av F \UZswF | B AUZaS s ԮT S-j T @Ac kcɻr @Ar (p 18)|

4| @Ac An@ POn 1357-j ~AO^F@بT @AiSgc Acɰ @aS ~Kb eZF ASdT OoF@p SfU ~@r-j ~oTSm TUOS BSF | AAS UZS :

"SfU ~@r"-j TUOS TUO@ AUZaS : "AcK A@ @R cU s T cq ToTf, jTS A@ T gq rN aaA AcFTS |" AcK c^ TUO@ s oH J ASBq AcK - c^ Sfc @q TfOfS | A@ا s rK AUZaS - T T gq rN aaA AcFTS" - RAv j@Av ASa@ @\S, AgAfS ~cɰ | "SfU ~@r"-j @Ac eZF cAnr, p eZF S | "gq" rN "aaA" k @, Tm cq, j@ TUv @ ~@ TUv s^ @S @Ac, @S p, @S UqS j@AvR "gq" rN Sq |

5| fS Oncf | r WK if R WAS c^Ψ | @AcgcS ~ɦ J sR-~ɮ AaU | cTS AgvA TTAU @TɻoFQ | r WK @AcAv TfSQf e@AU @Ac 3-j TA a |





r An@ eZF @ ިSTA | cɮ-j @r BS 15, 2004 |

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