fH BFAA^S

~U@




BFAA^S i@ب

|| @@S ||

cf^Sq j@Av wS, "~fT ~@r ~wHF A@H, @ة w w, @ة O^ S AAa AcAOn ~U@ BU," sS AOAS Jq Ac@ -- ~eZF @ZAO s TpXo AcAv SAcer rNf ScBwH ceU r@ BU @AaU | AF, ewf, AOn@U -- pA cQnq jq i@ب Ac ~cS ~B ~ ~T @ ~BS Sq |

BɦɮJ@ jq Aco R ~AgBɩ i@ب Ac ~SFT ^S TAK c^S i@ب ޡTިn BFAA^S i@ب (1849-1925) AaUS j@ ~SSF AgcS ިdK | BfcS AcAg^ s AAS SSS pA@s s AaUS, A@ا fq AaU J BfcScFf oS | J@ ~T mH @A oS cf^ | cf^-Ag Ac@r c^ΨAT jq BFAɰ ~SH R ~cS @ ~T BS A "BfcSmpA" R J ~SFSF UZ @ | cf^Ag mkH BFAA^S gkAT@ mf@ @ ASR cU s j cqR AF, AOn@U jce AcrK @ f J FQ ~cS dLR ~A̮fT |


|| AcA@ Ao@ R ArQ ||

ceU f BFAA^S TMAU@ AO^ R pA AO ~B Acmp, jce qBSFq AcrKgc ~SocSswF | AAS AaUS i@ب Ac ~SFT wfA@ R @ | AcA@ Acrq J T fArQ d | jq i@ب Ac AAv TSK cerSnAT@gc ~SFSF c@ pArfU @T rAr f@ A@gc BfcS ~fgc s @ ASAaUS @ ~T AcAg^ kn @ BS A | X@S T @q jq AcA@ AF R PcArF UQ @ s | jJ fOO oS j@v AcrKH @Uq Z s s jr oްf f rAr Acrf f@R jJ TS ~w R l wH R ~SrfUS @AaUS | X@S jq ffA Ao@f AaUS J ިn c^S i@ب | i@ب Ac AASq T f OS d @S jce J ިn@SF R gɩyިn cQ|f OS l S | jTS Acr Prrc@U @ BFAA^S mgAc@gcq f Ao@ Ug @S | ~i r@ rKgw @ ASr r@ Tgw s^ ceU TAB@ BfcS s j@v ~Am ~cm OUAaU @ fR cɰ sAS | BFAA^S B^ jq T | "ceU ScBwH" ~oF cQ|TB ~Acgc j@Av \UZswF WvS | TB ɮS j@Av AcrK ~ AaU f | jq cQ|fAU oްwS wgf gc AaU | B TTS wrf cQ|f OS @ ceU oTf Qn j@ SS o ^S AUS | s TAK c^SR cQ| TB ɮS oTf@ AcrK j@Av mS S | ~oH AgcS BFAA^S AS R TAST cBS Qة ~BS @S ASB O | J c۰ɰ AXB^S AS cAB AAS T AS ArQ d @S | cU cBSR J AcrK QT AaU | jq J c۰ɰ AXB^S j@Av @M@-@Ac A@a ~er \UZ @ s --"cU A@ ATi, ~Tp Aav, ɩAv S / AS be be be be be, SS |" -sw AcZFɩ w@ AcG Oncf [1] @a AAS R J ~wB ASAT f ArQ ASaS | jq AcG Oncf R cɲcq AcZFɩ w@ TMUc BFAA^S TAST cBS | TBɰ F^S @a ~Tc @@UfS AAS ArQ @ AcrK @pAL AO ZS | jqgc ~T Z q s f @U Qnq J ~Sɮ ~SwS AaU | f wgf gc ASAK AaU J H | SAcer rNf AS R ~wFS cAB BFAA^S Fq j@ Acm mQ ZS | ~cSf^S i@ب @ ~T q -- "SAa ~Qcc cUS ~T BFA@Tr ~wFS S U@ Ag BT s |"

|| AcA@ Acr ||

BɦɮJ@ i@بcA Acr ZS jvq ~S@kU AaU s AFpA Od@U, SvFAgS, wfOO cA@q ZS TpAXo ~ߨ Ac@Ar iAaU | cf^S @, "A@ا Tm aA iAaU f | cUf mgAc@ wfTo R wfTZ̩ @S co S ~T @a sS lc T lA̩ AaU |"

AXB^S i@ب
BFAA^S f OS AaU PcAOnFkH | j ToF ~T q cQ|f, rLTco@ wS, Tf, SvFf jce A wS | J f OS T kOS cQ|f ToFT | AcAOn TpXo jq fAU J m@fݩ mQ m | ZS BɦɮJ@ cA c c w@ ~r R | J ToF TA c^oF, sg [2] qFA ST AcrKgc \UZswF | AT@ s jJ wS gC BFAA^S R J ~wB cQ|f OS d @S | RmA wS gC w d R @H cQ|f SS @T RmA cr Ug @a | BFAA^S cUaS, "qJ wS gAC ZS ~AT R c۰ɰ (AXB^S) ~S@ cQ|f OS @AAaUT | A@ rMAZS A@ rɰ @SR w@ @SR wS gU UAwUq ~TAS Av vA@ Uq ~T cQ|f OS @A cAT | jq cQ|f ~S@ c c RmA R U cr @Aa |" J cQ|f OS @cU oްq AaU S -- ZU, US qFA wS gCR wS OS @aS |

jq \UZ @ s s BFAA^S R J ~wB ~SB A@a j@q AA^ wS wS OS @AaUS | sTS sS gOs "dTIT cZ" AXB^S OS @US, "fSfS g@", BFAA^S OS @US "AT g̮ TT ~@بU ", cf^S @US, "rkSF AA "| @U ToF BFAA^Sq a^ AcS @US jq wS | AA^ US wS - "AT AT " gC AUZUS "@ةAS wAfS", cf^S AUZUS, "ZfS ASArAS" | J AO cQ|f eZF j@r | j ToF KvAv wS R s mAUA | BFAA^S AO @@Av cQ|f \UZswF, "~B ~S^ T O^ S" (ATr cw, IJީU), "~AS Hc kH" (qTS@UFH , ̬Jɽ), "BAS AT TUT" (@A, @RAU), "HTAT ~SA ~S^ SɩS" (TɰAB gBS, ̩), "AcTU g ATAU j@خ" (Pgcf @RAU), oSF AT oSF, gcBUAoH (RSv, ̩) qFA |


|| OSPcAOnF R cf^S gc ||

BFAA^S mHf @cS J AO wS PcAOnF R wPcAOn | J wfpA jrf oްf rAr Acrf wS T^ j@ SS @r ~T Z q | c OS @ @ OS BSF AAS ~Q OMof R cf^S@ lA @aS -- jq cf^S cUaS, "BFAɰ ZS Fq RmA wSU@ AS s^ ToF AU Aw@ sha T^S @A cp AaUS | AwSfAU j@ j@Av ~kc TkA R gccFS @r q | s @U cJoAST ToF T^wA m AZ OU Aw@ AcdXo Acsmgc M @qc Tn q Acc @pA SkS SkS ~gcSf rA Z A jce ~T AO@ c AcOAU @A AU | U sS SS @ @ @Aa jq ~T m AS qT |" cm䨩 ceU oTf Qn BFAA^S ~cS ~A̮fT | j sw jq oAv cS @ AS cf^S cQ|f@ kH MJa AaS | J ~Aggc@L R H cf^S fA@ Ag kH Ac@r Wv |

cf^S cr A@a wS OS @AaUS BFAA^S | sTS, "T bAU AS TS, wU w AAU S, q c^ A jU" | J T BfcS wS jq gc AcrK gc UQ @ s | BFAA^S AS s^ OS @Hq c wS EOɩFf gc m | cf^S c\TfA@Ag T emH wSAU Jq R | j ~w 1880 ZfN BFAA^S "TSTf" wfASvF OS @S | ~cSf^S cUaS, "TSTf wS BFA@@ R qeAB @T" |

rLco@ wS OSR BFAA^S @pAL m@f | r w AO @UBf mrf wS "OU OU c g̩ ^S" AO AaU ިH cɮ@U | wSAv RiST ~F^ ~@K@ jce fS gc@r AcrKgc U | A Bɩf f "U TqB" j ceU ~Scɰ @ AAS UZS, "~ ~ r ^S" | F^S i@ب AcZFɩ OS "ATU c g̩^S" wSAv Tf gK ~Sc FScɰ @ OS @S, "ATAU @U wR g̩ g sr wS" | mH@بTf cf A@a rLco@ wSR BFAA^S @S |

F^S i@ب
Tf QnR AcAOn OS @aS BFAA^S | jqc wS R @ T ceU ~oAS@ wS kO@ Ac ~S o s | J A@a T wS - "T @ ~ cUS, ~ ! @f OJɰSf ɩ, s ja U " | j c wS R a^PcAOn j@ SS ޮpA a | j @@Av gC wS \UZ @ s | A^f ZU, "AU T cB" cJoaS " T cB " | j wS cf^S wS, "jZS OZ AZAS" | "@F @d BAS" cJoaS "A@ @A BAS" | BFAA^S j@Av BSA A wS -- " T @ jZS" | ~ j@Av A wS, "T s @ gFU" | jZS cf^S "rKQ" SAv@ "Rw T cq gU" wSAv @ mgcq TS s | J AO SvFf AcmA̩ ~UOS @ c S @H ~Ao@er wSwAU eQH ~gc A wa |


|| QH O R mAUA cS ||

BFAA^S f AS R fAݩ AO -T o f @ R OS ToFq fTcXo AaU S | cQ|f mAL R ^A BSF AAS wgf gc O S | 1875 U 8 BS ~AcQ|TB f AcFU AA | an jZS AcS cS @i R s^f ArQ R | ArQ@ AaUS sg | dH BFAA^S jq f AcFU ɰ@ ASs S | j@ @ f kHgc lw @AaUS ASB@ | ASB wS w j@BS c w@ icS jq ~r J AaU S | @U ToF fOO O R BSF J@ cq cFp @ AZ |

AXB^S mAUA


AAS wS mfgc eQH BSF U ~@ mAUA XoA XgcS @ O S | J ~w "cU@" An@ @Ar AXB^S @p mAUA ~SH @ | BFAA^S jq XoA em @ T eZFTAn@ mAUA R ~R B @ ~@TAn@ XoA OUS @S | @cUTn aZS oH vq cFc @ mAUA aS jq B R U XoA Xgc@ BFAA^S | j@U R ~B sF^ jq ~@TAn@ XoAq fBw OAU a | XoAAv cFcA@ wHswF R ˻@ة ^ɩf |

1897 U AAS "mAUA-wfATU" ST@ ~F^ TkUFcS j@Av mAUA w^ @r @S | j AcFA, wAc^ɮ, mH@بTf cf, ~Q OMof, cf^S R J ASB 168Av wS mAUA ~@TAn@ XoA TA ~a | jq w^ @r "cfHcASf" ST@ j@Av f AcK@ TA@ An@R @r @S | @U TSK ToF f ̮ R OO WvS AO^ BFAA^S AScAH @aS | ިH cɮ@U ZS@ "wS TB" Z AAS @U@ɩ fOO BSF "g̩f wS TB" mS @S jce J ~S@ Sv@q jq TB ~AgSf AaU | jq AS ^A BSF AAS ~H O R ArT @ AwAaUS | ceU r f ArQ, f ~oFS R fSwf s ~^ j@AS ATAU ~U ~UOS @ S, jq rF BFAA^S jq f TB A @S | jq TB TZn "f-@Ar@" ST j@Av TA@ An@R AAS @r @S | gc ~c@ Uw s sw @cUTn f AcK@ j@Av An@ ASAT gc jw ca OUAaU |


|| ޮe ||

j@BS ~BfcS f gc@ AsAS ASB c OAcTZ @ f@ SkS TpXo @aS c@T gc, rf Acrf ew, eQH AO^, ~@TAn@ mAUA XoA cS R O jce U ASr SkS XoA cS qFA AcAg^ A@ ASr TSK @a JMa AaS, jce cA cf^S@ OS @ waS q BFAA^S rFq cAU, "T ~S c @d@ AcrAc, ksArrSQnU@ @d@ K O / S S H H wJ S^S / kH @ wwS ~S J c^S wS | "




BFAA^S
(1849-1925)





[1] AcG Oncf- AcG Oncf AaUS ~TU ~F^ BSA w@, wfA@ R @ | TTS T @q @pG R AcG q gq cQ|TB wS waS | AcG Oncf i@ب Ac cSg@ w@R AaUS | ~STS @ s TAK c^S AO A@a wS AASq S | J BSAݩ @H AaU AAS fW S sw wS@ gn^ @ US S, f cHf TT J wS kHgc @r ީ |

[2] sg - ZFɩST oް w@ R fOAݩ sS gOs sg STq AAO | TAK c^S i@ب J@ i@بcA f ArQ@ Ac ASs @AaUS | AAS ZB cɰSR ~F^ ̰rf AaUS | cf@U ~AcQ| TB ASAT wS @S jce TB TA^ f AcFU fArQ@ AcR swS @S | J AO \UZswF cQ|f, "AcްgcH @ @ R TS" | cf^S sg A AcrK rXorfU AaUS | J rF cUaS, "Rmɰ aJO bU PA , sg Acoɩ mm AO |"







jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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