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^r 1368 - 1387
FABl A ; @r@ - ~S^ cAUrɮ; ha R ~Ue@H - FABl ; T @r - MK 1388 ; p -378 ; T - 150.00 v@;
ISBN 81-7066-866-7 ]





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Ar @ ~AcrɮF @T @T T ~ɮ aAc-a-w\-@ cqn ; @r@ wA @rS, BcgAm cUg, Tm ; ~Scɰ @S ceU @خqv UZ@-@Ac - T/SSf/gK/@TQfɰ - @Av ST jq ToF cR mpA BU - "qnS @", "U IJAv TwAv"- "BSU A TZ cɦR/TvJAv AS sR" oS eA ~T TZ TZ A ZS | @U@ɩ "TSfK" jce TASfި "~^K" ST@ w^U Av ACS @ q w^Ϯ |

j@c @AO@JO BSF AaUS @بT, ^A@r, AQH̵S, swf^S | q o dU T^@بT - B^, TAS@, ^cc; Sf̵S - A@fAv, c ; ArcT Oncf - KcoS, wcoS ; UfU TBT @ d @ ZU R | ~@v cݮ cɦU vAS, WSɰ, خ re@ب; "OJ " AcgkAgkKH, "TAI aU" TAS@ c^FoF; cXoc c "a @U @U"; Mf^TS TZoF "OAUl O^", "T @Uf ZJ" | AcAr R @TA AaU S - ~r@ gcSc rA~; of^S ~Scɰ @S STf UZ@ OS - A@S, AmvgSS, T, mv ; @بU̵S R ~fr coS ~Sc BU gS | jqc AF j@ AcrK @^mU AcB @̩ "^r", ~Tɰ R ArQ g j@ ASZJ R cUfU g̮TF Z; q Oq R rwU ToFR ATr @ة ASAc TSm, ީ TS Aw^ |

SS sɻ ^r TA@n T eZF @Ar cf^ rcK - 1368 S PcrZ T | Av @ TS ަa jq ew : j@, A@ An@ "~Tp"R @r d AaU jq j@q T jce cf @@ r@ ceU TA@n qA j@Av dLkH gkAT@ US @AaU @wBAv | q, Fɩ Sް AA@ ް J j@Av ASc^ AaUT s ޡr r@ R Ar\ɡU AAS j@Av A@ An@ ɰS @S, ST Ԯ^r, Zc c j@Av cT^f v qASS TZn | Kv r@ T sZS FABl R ~SF ^r @r ɦBɦ @aS, ZS AcSTW cB TS @A ABmv J @r ~STA A ~mf@ @S, @H j@q ST ~@Av An@ cTS | ްcc q Zc @@ AOAi AUZ BSS s J An@Av ~oSAcU jce Rq STAv R J @S Ac Sq; j Uq c ^r AA@ ިS:@r |

^r T d 1320 U 1U PcrZ ~ɻl jAU 1913 | j Ai@ j@ ca ~w ~UA^@ Tɮw c AwAaU vqvAS@ BB | ~ Ai@ ɩ Tɮ ScU ިm US cf^S i@ب | ^A@r OMof ɰS ^r T @r - J ASB aZS, kH ASB ZO ; An@Av T AS ~S UR ^ @wB, IUTU TUv, g ɰ-@U R ACS aAc T | T eZF ^A@r AO gkAT@Av jq e@US wA^ϩ a ; AAS AUZaS, "... ~T s ^r Zq Av H ~a | Zq gU Uw ~ rf cU | ~T jq s An@ZAS Ԯ^r ST Uq @U AS@v Amϩ qa, qR sA jq Av H @ - ~ɻl q A sA @U gU Uw ~ A@a @ , cq q ^r ST ˻@ qc |" ^r ~w ~R Av av An@ cAAaU - T "Z R Zf" - Zc c ceU gK T Ar An@ jce @@ ca T@بU | Avq oS Fɽ ^A@r jce UZ@ AU@ ިgw AAS R J Ac ~SFSF | ~T r ZS aAc N@ PA @ R aS @S cFcmq AaU S cU wU | AAS ASB jq c sA ArQ @US jce ASB aZS ɬ vS, N@ AAxve j cFcm @US - o r S, AcUR q ~F S-j a cqn ~@بi re R Tɰ AaU |

jqgc ArAF d U j@ SS sw | ^r ZS AUZaS ^A@r, cf^S, ~cSf^S jce ZS@ c c c UZ@ | ~ @TcAR Ag A@a @T sS S - 1321 U j@Av eZF cdU cɰ AT @Ac "AZOA", UZ@ @بT -

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d U ~cU cU AAB T Xgv @Ac - ~BAc, BT@U, ASTU A, AcTfS ~S^ | A@ا 1915 U 20 Ac TpF U ^A@r jce ~ir ca cA @بT ɰ@ US ~ɦq ca cA Ԯ^r An@ | 1921 U s^ OUU ^r mHsw, @UB ~n^ US @بT | ~mϩ ToFq AAS OAU wUS ^r ɰS, A@ا 1923 U J TpF c^ wU ^r | A@aAS @بT TBgq AcS ɰS ~c d U jce ~ASAT gc UR OUU 1342 U s^ | j@cq c^ |

JAOr ca @vU | T g qhaUS R ~SH ~c "^r" @r ɦBɦ @US FABl, J AaUS @Ac gK TZoF ; T eZF cdU T 1961, gAT@ AUZUS ^A@r TB T ިHFU Oncf - "jAS ^r ~c ja - @ة ~r ~ ~S^ @ ~ɰ cH @Aa | ~c ^r W W ASTU A ~ ~S^ g ZU A@, A R ~S^ ToF A aUT ScAXo بAv U@, TS @بT cpAAU Ac@Ar @ A@ | ^r ScB^ ˻@ !" T A@ SS ^r ɰ@ AaUS FABl R gK; ca ɰ@ U sw AUS UfU TBT ; jR A@aAS sw AUS ިHFU Oncf T SAUSf r jce J mTf ~r@S^ r US TA@ ^r @r@ | ~UOF w^Av ^r An@ T @بA ca @Ar UZ R aAc @ "ca AS, aJ@ AS" c @ j@ AScɻAO e@US | UZ caq @ AL AaUS ASBSq - UfU, SAUSf R FABl ; ɰS R ~ʮB g ASaS FABl | gkAT@ AUZ AaS UfU TBT, BASaS - "av Z Oq jq BfcSv @ة gU | BS Oq cQ| @ A@ Wva, Wva, Wv sha | TSK T TSK Z Oq | jTS TSK s ~a, s gU@ gU ~ T^@ T^ cU | s UɰAU cq; s WpH @ o ATF@ AS̩@ ~ @بJAT@ | cɰ s BF SF@AT ~ be | s Acr @pA@ SFsF Bw A m䨩 | s TS | j c ~T i@ ZArR @ Oq | ZAr @ S U ~T c Oq cp |" S, @STq cp S, Tv v, Sɰ S, COC cqAv ASUq ~ ZAr ~ ~SAcU ~S^ g ic s @S c Ar TS | j TH, ca r rAv TH jce TH eZF ޡ^ B | ^r B @ !






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@f @ ZS ^r TA@n ? @f ~a jq @بA ca (PcrZ 1368 - POn 1387) 240-Av eZF TT ^r ? a c A@a - w\, @Ac, c^, a, Ar@ @ASf - w^ ZFS - @ - ~Fɦg, qAɮ, AcS; ~ J@ J@ TFAB@, oJoJ, JAU, aAc ~ rN ZU, @vS | TS , j@Av eZF FABl d @US AOnSvF UZ AsAw, A R U w\ ~\m\ @iT | eZFAU a U i@-Ai@ UZ ASAv AOnSvF | jce FABl B gK H A cAI AUS A@gc q AOnSvF ~cUcS OUAhOn ASTɻH , A@gc j@ rv @ ~SF rv, prF @ prF^ s |

ceU ArAF SfOAn c@UfS Z ; @ Sf ca ca ^S Acq sS, cArgwq ިn^S - ~ Sf@ @Jv, ASO @Jv T ASAcc T U R @S rAm S ~of | ~dH cdH R A@HTU @ASf - "~dH cdH q gq , rS ; U A@U U ; cS AH M o", ~ "A@HTU cɦf @kvv@ب A S ; @BUU wq w TAaAv cA S |" (i@بT IAU, ATn R WK) ~cmv roS A@av O U ^r, c˨S @UB AA^U jce ^r ~SFT ɰ@ SAUSf r @UT - J w^@ASf oS OAn OAv A@rf - @U, TU, cU R vU, ~ɻl "w^ wU"| TU g ɮ ɮ gc, " Zɩ SAU oA AUq @Ac AUZ Uc wv @ة@ |" @U cA@, @c@, ASg; cU ZAS@v gf, ~\q TZ @J @J j s ; vU @ASf @@ | OBS j@q mU , @ mvU, c s SS Bw ~ BA ~Fɦg | cTS w^ e@AU a "wU R AA۲ccf F", (p 200) j@v A@ OS - ^r @r 1386 |

1970 U J TpF ~w s^ ^r ASAT AUZaS rA^ c^FoF ; T-cɮf jq UZ@ j@Av oS OAn Arc, ~\cA aU - ZS wJ wBAS, ArcBf SɰU sw Zc @T c jce R cfL AO A US pA ~@KH @ | Arc AT@ ST @بߨ - @ AS ASB wT @ AU jAaU jce @بߨ@ ~r AAaUS ArcBf-BSSf ABBcq | rA^ BfcS ~o@vq @va T, 1952 U @ AAS mfgc ިSAScɮf - T qAɮ R gkwU J SZ޻H | Arc w\AU Ai@ AA@ F, mrT R ~Fɦg a UZ@ ~^仰pA, gK Bfc R USAcfS ̮co; fWAS ~Agک J AOnSvF UZ - ~\@ بAv US dQ, A r rNf Ti r BF^ rNAOn | ~ aq FAB ~J@ aAc | "Arc Wɦ-Wɦ @"(p 23) @ASfAv jq w^ j@ TkUFcS esBS |

a j@Av U w^@ASf, 1387 ^r @Ar "wU@oT F" (p 350) - @U@ɩ vgkAT@ w\ ; gTH Sq cUq co Bvݨ ~SAmϩ ; "gU@ ~ɩ Wc^f ~cm kB SFɮ AUZaS, q Z-Qlv j@v @T |" cAUw @ػ j@ ަ^ cSA Ac ~U OA O ; A@ا cFv TSF S @H s-W O jAaU cA^ j@ ~^ Bfc̮SAc, AsAS ~S@ ca ~w ~TA@ j@Av AcrAcFU wcKHw @B @ @ j@ WvS U ~^ sS R @U@ɩ A ~S | F ~JO U lf, ~ sw OA R ZS | @ASf TH R Tg̩ @ ~S@ ~SK R H a ~ ~a ceU R qeAB vqެxv c^ ~UOS R cHS | w\Av @TcA i@ Ai@ ~S@q jq AcKAU AS ~ cAr @ BS ~wf c | jq @ASf U T ZAS @ q F ToS @R J@ ~Ags @SAS c ިAUr@ BSSAS | sAR q ZAS ~ Tn AS cJOAaUS, j-AcK SfAw ~A U ~ʩ c S ASEOq |

cAr c AXf i o ަU ~ j@Av ~A | cf U Tc Z @ j :Z @r @US s AAS ~w @ ~FxvTxv @ SAS, @H m ZJZJA ~S@AS o J ɦ S c | A@ا AS @Uq J cA @ S jU U @a s AT: m ZS aS | sq @ c ATAU w\Av TS jce gwF |

e@US ~a FABl ~ ASAv UZ - "T\U SɮfdAS w\" (p 145), Uq @FU "BFcRA@" ~cUcS UZ @Ac "Bc Z@f" (p 260) jce "ɮ " ST ~R j@Av w\ (p235) | sAR i@ c ~r cT Tv c S, خ re@ب j@Av w\ @U TB ~ gfKHgc BT jce e@USAv cɻʮ^ | Zc c ~ݩS @Hq re@ب cɰ waS, c gc qha @ "ɮ " ST ɰTv w\Av cU sA j@Av re@ب-@ASf SR s; AcrK @ re@ب s w\ cv AcorZ @i "oSoSF ިy g" wSAv AaU | Zc c Av T re@ب@ASf jce ST co "cFTsnf A" - ZS TUw Hf w ~Jrv w^ ~ wU "AA^A, AA^A" ~RB cAS R TS | ~ɮU mAvrOO @UB cfH ~oF@ AnU@r re@ب J cU ASvS, O@ ɰ ~ cv AcorZ ATU sgc T rSq ~T TS Qب i@@ fWmf HTo FS cAS UAaUS, U SAS | U T UwAaU ZAS@v cAr |

~ ~S@ A@a TAHT a jq ̮U e@US | ~a cf^S Av SAv@ -"A T޻S" w\Av SvF AAaUS AQةfr (p 87) jce "The King and the Rebel" @M@SvF BwA^ gMAT@ @p ceU ~Scɰ "B R Bf" (p 14)| cf^S jq qeAB @M@ SAv@Av AUZAaUS rA^AS@ةS ~rT AcFU ananf qeAB rZS BSF | ~a TSUU woF cf^mpAOH "@ثcc" (p 21), AQATS S SA-SɩAS@ UZ AOAi A@ec^f "wa ST cWrU" (p 33), f^S i@ب Tw wT aAv c sR @ASf "j@ g\U@ w\" (p 42), cf^ BfcSf@ gɩ@بT TZoF "@Ac R ScU ިy" (p 197), sZS @Ac ިy Zc R ~rT SUcc@ @ cUUS, "jc ~S @ S R @ ZS c |"

@A @B AS r@ R cAr T ATU cɮf AaUS AAF@ swrO^ TBT (1882-1974); AAS Acer rNf To g BfcSsn AcK ^r @@Av mpA@ AUZAaUS | cTS w^ e@AU a J "mpA@H" (p 44) OSAv - SSS AZ R cSBU ~ST cHS | c@U U swrO^ AF Bw kH Acmp | @cf, ɰ R ~SFSF ToFswf g @Ac AcK J wgf ~UOSAU SSS C TMUcɰ @xvA@ة g̩cK ~fc BSf jce SS @ a AO | "AwAA mpA" (p 229) ST ~@Av gwF mpA@ AUZaS ^A@r gq A^ A@r OMof | ZS a ިS ^r @, @بT j@Av AcZFɩ @Ac rf Sf \UZ a, SfAv a AwAA r ToF Aq jce cA gɦ AS @AaUS ^A@r | ~ a Tr© cf cw\ "cf @ɩ R Aa @ɩ" (p 115) - Sccf ~TU w\, Aaɫ T^^ TT q cKfS aXcAr @ɩ q qA @ɲAS c ɰ@ c@ cAS ZBS v@ cTUT Ui @ @ASf | w\Av jq j@q T AS UZ jce c@U ~w ަ J "~Jo TAS@" SFɮAv @ TS @A AU | ~a Av SfA@TkU@ w\ - re@ c^FoF "gcS^ @rfTɩ" (p 34) jce S^ c AO "TAS@ Fɮɰ" (p 39)| ~ SH wewoF A w\ "Arި A@ة" (p 83) -w\Av OTl@, A@ا UZ@ ^r @Ar w\ g ~T j@^ A U "AO TBB", s 1968 U Swɰ ^r cAAaU | ~r cf OS "~ɮU vAS" (p 326) ~@Av TB UZ, A@gc J cARU aU cgc Z vAS OAnAv T jAaU SH wewoF | ~crF ~SFn AcKAv AS AcmA̩ gc AUZaS fe@ Oncf R "vAS Tw" ɰ@ Hc@بT TZoF |

ST@ gkALL@ R ArAAF@ jce "BU BU" UZ@ rFTU@pG WK ASAT AUZS ^r | WvArU cS R ZAS vgkAT@ UZ J "ިU@ ~Fɦg" w\Av (p 316) ~^gk a | j aɦR Ar gwF w\ AUZaS mSc, ArcT Oncf, Mf^TS TZoF, wMf oTU, ިHFU Oncf R ~SFSF J mgcAXo Qة | Ar@ w\ ަ ~AT j@cq gUcA S, c BAS AZ Av gwF Ar@ @ASf @- UZ@ R ~q A j rɮ@ HABl "ZAvTf cɦ cW" (p 105) jce cXoc AO "sT a@ cW"|

j aɦ a ~eZF @Ac R a; UZ@ةAU@AvR OT@ - ~AB , T^ ATn, ~^re@ , gK TZoF, Sf^S Oncf, BfTAS @ d @ ASTU^ wMT, TU @, U , AcSɰ c R ~ ~ ~S@ | ~c@ Uw ަ Pݰ TBc ~AU UZ AUTA@ | c ATAU jq e@USAv ceU ArAF j@ BU esBS |



   




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^r j@ ~AgSc O, s T@UfS ~SF Arr/A@r An@ OZ AS U -"ɩ @c ~ɮ", w@ wA@ UZ aAc, @Ac, a, wF e@US A eZF; Z UZ@ OT@ UZ, ~S@ cݮ ɩ A@ ~v | jq@T j@Av O UqS UZ ~T qha AaU @Ac UZ - mpA @ AUZAa, q gUR , @AcAv AaU - "j@ s AaU PAS@/ rnT PAS@/j@AS cUU J@/cq ~T q AS@ |" Zc c ZS OUa g̩ A@mS sXo, q PAS@ ~SK ZS mpA cU | ~ j@Av eZF @Ar U ~T O c TSF c j@ A@r @Ac UZ cf^S j@ AcZFɩ @Ac FA -
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TASfި r ca gfKH Z, mU Sf BU ~@U, TS ~a U mU @ cA ~r r wm cA @ BU O Aɮ TvS @ | j@q T ~T mU jUS SS Tmv - T rS TS AaU rgA, wf TSK | ^r H Z ~T @@BS c^Ψ ATU j@AS AaS cA c UZ U ~T FA - cf^S S, TokS -
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BAS S F @SAS ZJB AaUS A@S jq ypA, c J mrfU r @SAS @TA AS | cTS w^ q c@U ~w ަ cf^S FAAv e@AU a (p 348) jce ~S@ ިS mpA A jU | q gc ST A@r jZS A@ AUZaS BS qha @ |

^r ~T T UZ @r ~ @@ ca - Zc c 1973 c 74 ; ~wR @c @Ac R a AiAa A@ا TSSf AS | c AcU gwF Ar@ AaJU j@Av AcS AcK@ a ; ~qSmvqS R ~AQ@ة LL en^ j@Av c OAU AUTA@ @ ~SH | ɰ@ Uv AAaUS ASAv eA jce STAvR - "~B@ Aw ~ɮc A" STAv JU B U "~T @v"| q T ~ScrF@ w @AaUT jq ~SAo@ cr, A@ا jZS cI A s UZAv@ ^r @AO@JO i@ Ai@ Q ~@KHf @ U BSF AcSAU AaU j@^ BSf | TSSS ecɰ R UfU TBT @ɦAv ~S@AS sL @ ZAaUT, A@ا cc Ai@S cUS @U @ A wa | Ai@ ިB ~w TAS ~ɻ UT JO v@ ^r An@ @ | ~@ml ~ɻwT ~T AS ~S^ rK Sq | gAc @ ZS cTn @Ar a rA OoF r @Ac - TA\U@ ިm@U B j@c @ Aw ɩ \v ~A; @S TAU@ AcSݰ r xv cAr aɦ A AB SS, ɰA ZS OUa | v@v U Zc Aco , A@ا T cUU ^r ݮ ^r A@S cq@ ZR, ~jc q q |

jq, ^r mɰw^ cI Aw ASB ɦ mpA IJA ZU cAa; s TA@ n ACS A^oF @vAaU ASB P@r, caq @ OSAU A, AB e@US TS@ AA AS s U ~ɮ ~f | 2003 j fc rf cU I, ATU R, ~Acr^ cpAީS, AcrBɦ T^ R Ac sXoASS J@ J@ cr @@Av ^ AS ɩ @vU jq To w^i, BSF ^r R @r@@ BSq ~eZF, ~@بi oSFcɰ !






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