cɮ c@mvɮ (kH)

@Ac

w\/TFOS/Sv@

SFɮ

c^/BfcSf/mpA/AF gK/~AgoS/qAɮ..

Arr/A@r

Books_in_English




 
f^S i@ب (1888-1961): j@ Acmp cFALL

~U@






|| @@S ||

cf^S ިn f^S i@ب c^ ~T ݩ ~\q BS OAa | Aީ Ag X ~ha^ TSKAv ~U AaSq @ waS AOAS | AcA@ c^ΨL kn jq AcAr TSKAv A@a @ BSc MgwF ~T a | AAS AaUS j@BS ~rK H^ TSK | BfcSg AcAOnoS @B @ waS ASިH Qة, A@ا Aީ ~@rcFf Ag BSFq @ c ASB SFOf mgc BSFq @,- c @Bq @aS Sfc U@OQب ~ɦU | q BSFq f^S BSTS ~BS waS - J kH AO ~\ TSKq aS |

ASB BfcSOs f^S j@A@ Aީ j@AS ~SwTf -- cf^S cFAw BfcS R cpl @T@ c cFcA@ A@ ALq AaU J | ~SFA@ J ASB ~SSF Ag OOR OUa nT^, s @r ASgp ~O mkH ASߨr |


|| B^ R AT@ ArQ ||

cf^S JOAv ^S ToF f^S AXf | J B^ BɦɮJ@- 1888 U 27r Sgc | T TAK c^S BfAc @ AASq Mn ST@H @S | BɦɮJ@ cA Ac aU-T AS s qmU PA AaU ZSq f^S T ArQ d | j A@a BɦɮJ@ cpl e a J Ac AS cf^S sZS ArUq Aw ccɮ d @S, ZS q ~cA̩ @pA @U mofSgc J @p ArQ d | qmU c^ cf^S A ~Agک @ ިn@SF cAq ArQɰS cFcm @S | qeAB ަS U^ c, emp ArQ@ AaUS ArcoS AcFHc R AAS ASB ަS ceU | cf^S ArQAcK gcSAO^ d cU wU ިn f^S@ @^ @q |
Direct method-j ަS AAS ިn@SF ASq ~gFɮ @AaUS s rfW R B gK rZS Q Zcq @s@f AaU | A@aAS q cf^S UANo @AaUS s ASBwp fTS ToF s ArQUg R A@a WvA @ sc cS @ | q Tcݮf j@n ArQUg s U gcSAO^ U rA^AS@ةS AcFU A @S | ިn f^S@ @^ @q cQ|Os AcFU AA U 1901 ZpN | jq AcFU T an ToF f^S ~SFT | cf^S cA ArQo oS rF TS@ ̮ R cTZf @ | ަ @UT @B @ R ^ rgS dAO PA @ | j wS-cBS, aAc ~J@, ~AgS AaUq | @pA ~cR jTS j@Av cɻʮ^ ArQcFcm f^S ަrS jw @U | AcFU A cf^S ArUq ~U \Uf ިSwiS @B d @US |


|| ArUq ~U \Uf ިSwiS R ~TA@ @pAKAcS ArQ ||


AcS OS @Ac ިn@ \Ufem @B BSF w U OqUS | qmU R @UB i rK @ 1906 U f^S R J c^Ψިn ^K TBT@ cf^S ~TA@ qAUS AcrAcFU iUS @pAKAcS ArQ BSF | l@UfS cCAU TB hOArQ @ɤ AaU AcU cFAmvA ަ | ~TA@ Aw sA i U ~TU o cS f^S ToF Aq | TS TS cf^S s mrf TB A@\S @AaUS, q AAQ J gcS AaU s f^S R ^K A j wTɡU OAK ^ HUf OKc ArQ cS | qAUS AcrAcFU ArQ rK @ 1909 U f^S r A jUS | ArUq j@Av @pAK-ZT ޫS @US | ^ oS UCU jce SSS s^A m䨩 @ U | Tpl-AcS J cFlA @B UAw TAv HH fQ BSF j@Av UFcvAR w US | A R @UfwT wSR J @B Qn Acmp AaU | ASB vv OAU B BAT OK @ ArAZAaUS | ArUq ZT @B aɦR OAK ToF ~U, vTv jce ~Z OK kOS @S | Aީ wT^S m@ ިn f^S cmc AUS |




|| AcAOn g wiS gkAT@ ||


r^ Sfc TSKAv@ cq @ ZU cI s S @ة AcAOn @T@ AAS cFp | ~TA@ @ sZS AUS ZS BɦɮJ@ cA Ar\ AF SS SS pA TZ | cf^S @cF R f Tos A̩ ha ̮ TSK TI | cf^S BɦɮJ@ w UUS AcAOn c | ~cSf^S, wwS^S, FS , @بT , T OMof, sfS cwOf, OdO^ c^FoF gpA Ar\f AAF@ swS @US | cf^S J c w\ c^ jq AcAOn T ASaS | jZS AF ~ɮ aɦR, ewf BU, ~AgS AOn@U qFA OOɻR | MTF^S i@ب J snf w^ j- cUaS - "̮Ac ̮ ~ɮ ZS j@AvR AaUS .... cf^S ASB ްɻcJo AcAOn @U@ɩ A@ TB dAO pA @ s @f ~TSF @B @a cU rK @ sS "| cf^S j S O oS AaUS f^S | AASq ZS@ AAF-Ar\-f A@ s @S AcAOn | jTS ewiAS@ @B f^S ~wR lA aS | ~TA@ @R A@a AcAr an@ j@n @ qAUS AcrAcFU @خTAUvS c ST A j@Av AS kOS @S R Axv AScɻAO S | J jq wiSTkU@ O cf BfcS Acrg̩f @B ˻@ Ug @ |



|| mr-fA ||


ceUr mrf ~^US knɩ 1905 U | i@بcA X@S ~TU @ s mrfA AcA@ BfcS m:mk ~UɦS U, f^S BfcSR gc AaU | r TSK ToF mBɩFco Bw AAS AS^S R ~AB Oncf rA^AS@ةS r»cf wTAU Aީ AO mrf wS w SFrSU BSF v@ UAaUS | ~SrfUS ATA BBlR ArAZAaUS cr A@aAS |


|| Acc R Acrg̩f swS ||


Tf, f, cf^S, AT cf, R cU (1910)
~TA@ @ wwS^S ~\cm Acoc gf AT cf f^S Acc | cf^S jq T ASB ~wHf Ac AST gC AcocAcc AUS | jA@ cf^S Q j@ rA^AS@ةS AOUS nTq @ĮoF iAaU, q AAS ިn@ ArUq @ @ iUS 1918 U | ZS @q f^S rA^AS@ةS AL ASUS - @ ^, c @B ASB@ kHgc lw @US - ASBm BfcS@pF@ k A Z | f^S sZS rA^AS@ةS g SS ZS OT ~haU OUAaU | jq AS SSS ~qSw ~Aco R ~A˻@ cm TU c BSF PcKA@ @B@T cvq ASB U ASUS | cf^S J pABw AcOH ~c US | 1921 U sZS ~SAS@gc Acrg̩f AA U ZS f^S R r^ TUScfr US s-AOc | AAS j@q j-AL cS @ waS fW JAnr ca o | ^S @, ~ASU O^ j @B J swf AaUS | SkS AS ~˻PSA@ @iT pb @ @B, AcrAcFU AcAg^ Acgw w U @B J@ q j@@ AL US @ | @UfTS WK j AUZaS, J f^S@ Acrg̩f @B PAS@ vS ~i Wxv ~cAo ArT @ ZaS | Acrg̩f T c f^S ~oFSR @aS;
Genetics c MBɩFAcF ަS | cf^BfcSf@ gɩ TZoF J mpAOH j- cUAaUS - jq BAvU AcK@ ̮ @ cIc BSF AAS T m䨩 ~ɮS, experiment AZ ~T To @S | Acrg̩f ArQɮkAO ަrS aɦR AcAg^ Acgw AaU | c AcgwAU ToF igcS ASq f^S AO^ AaU ~Ao@ | Acrg̩f jAv ~A AS R AAS jZSq ަrS @AaUS cU j-Acgw R J AcrK TTR AaU | o @B S, c @Tf J To @ػ AaU | mgc AAS Sfc TSK UR @Tf Z-:Z J r @S, BS s S @S r U@R BS ̩ S |

Acrg̩f @B J oS oS AaU | j@c rc^Ψ AO̵S ɮ J@ ~So @S Brf AAgS @ g̩f UABUAvg ~FcAU F | AcS AXA^ s f^S AScɻAO S, cFcmR @ ZAaUS rc^Ψ | J Aީ A AUR f^S Acrg̩f @B a s Bf SAS | ~ j@c BRUU Sd J@ k ް A cq i OAaUS | q S R ~˻ ɩaAS AAS Q @S Acrg̩f QA @ gc | ~O ~ɻgc ZS J s AaU | Aީ ~ɰr@ Aݩ @ jTSq cXoA@ AaUS f^S |

jZS AAS ~SSF | Aީ cU Ag R ZFA ~AgW ިn BfcS AcQة R WvS qA AcU S | A@ec^f An@v F S cFɦTFS ިn sr ~F AchaH Acc ASB ްcf AcS @S | ~S@ Qnq ިn Aީ @fA R BfcScfQ A AcTZR aS |

Sw^S woF@ j@Av AOAi f^S UZS, "... ~B ~c ~T B^AS, q c c ~S@ @ TS UwU | jq @بA cl Z:Z @ iA@ Z wU S | jq Tɮv jUq q c @ TS ަ @ | ɩ ca U jq Tq T ~T a sS | ~c rTfR jq T B^ R TpF AS | gwcS ~T ~p ~ A@ AUZaS @ BS ? cc@ s ZAa, q @ ha -- AAS ~crF A@a cUS S -- A@ا mq ZAa J TS ~ @S Z Sq | ~T @ ~R cAr jq BSF s, ~AT J@ Zf @ c j Acrɮ ~T Sq | jZS @ ASB@ sA j@v @B TSK w U A Uq J@ @ c j@v |"

@بA ca cq f^S J BfcSo ASHf @AaUS |


|| Aީ gTHf ||


f^S AaUS Aީ gTHf | cf^S B^A@ - AcAg^ r
Acr cc sS R ZS@ HfR ~T^H BAS ~ɮS | rA^AS@ةS q ~SvS AS AcAr ~AA ~ɮ-sR, @ R ~FS cFcm cq f^S LcoS | f^S W R cq @B @Tf PA @ S Bq, A gc jc @BR To @S | ~A cpl @B @R J@ PhO:m @ cU @ش rSAS | c @Bq AAS Sfc, AS:rN ^ @S | J g cFc R Bɩ MBSF AAO TU cɰc@F AH AaU | ~e@ J@ mr @AS, Amo cFc AaU ̩ Tos | gTH cF j@Av WvS jZS \UZ @q | Acr-gTH T cf^S nvA scf @B AASq ^ @S | 1912-13 U US cɮ@U Avc-U @ NTcA sc ST T cc ~FvAO @خAv f^S vS U ~S gUcr: | ~FvAO Ag cf^S wfɵAU qeAB ~Sc j@Tn ШAUA R ~ ~S@ @A @wBn AaU | ZJB ަU AEO^wm f^S lost property office -j oS l mAm S | AީpmpA AAS AUZaS - "TI j@v :m T gAc sA qeBf wfɵAU ~T ~TSsw R wAUA dH AFq A s, U ...." U AFq A@ ~TR gc @kU q S |


|| cf^gcS wiS ||

1912 U f^S sZS Aީ US AaUS, wfɵAU ~Sc cF AcU TSfKf R @rS Bw cf^S ZS ASFSkS swsw Wva | jq AAmA AgrUf Aީ ASFSkS ZTZU TU f^S@ @B @ s | ZSq AAS jTS j@Av @B knɩ @AaUS s BSF cf@U cf^ AF i@ R wcK@ gk @p S | k̰rf ިn US STf
International Clipping Service j w@ R U AcAg^ nAn@ cf^S A@ػ c@T @A@ J @a ~ | jq c @A@AU AcAg^ r cf^S OS TZ gKH R scf @B@T AA@ AUU | AAS Aީ Tm AOAin R OS @A eQH cFcm @S | jq U AOAin w^TU @Ar a | Acr @ A Aީ ScU ިm A @ @A@AU S-AZ ~S AcSFɮ @ AUZ Z rToF @BAv f^S ASB @S | jqc TkUFcS AUU j@ Bw ew @ AAS rA^AS@ةS Aɩ ~Os mS @S s cf^S TpF cf^gcS ST AAO | jq cf^gcS w U f^S Tl pA | cf^BfcSf@ gɩ @بT TZoF cUAaUS s f^S jq O BSFq cf^BfcSf ~S@ ~er J Q UZ B AaU |


|| OT R @i @B ||

Acrg̩f AL R Aީ QHcQH dg @B r r f^S pArfU TS cq Bw @a | AAS AaUS TSH ~Avmv -- OT @B J AcU PSިHF ~S@q ~BS | ~B@ OT @B g̩cK s OAU ~S@er AASq  1926 U ATUS @ ArZ ~S | A@ا @B @ T f^S kH Ar ABqS AcAg^ ABAS PA @S | ~B ~T sc OT cFw@ rA^AS@ةS cFw c cAv@ @B cAU c@ US f^S | ananf ToF jq @B ArQɰS BSF AAS R ATcf ATU w US rfAS@ةS Ar\ޮS | ~rr wT TSK s @i, OT, TplAr\ qFA @B ArZ mASg BSF ASB @B ArAZAaUS | @ Ar\ Qn J @pAL mf@ @AaU - J@ @A j@ Ar\ em Ar\AcK@ wH @ AaU | @i @BR AAS AaUS AXom | J PcArF, @i AAS @SR e AS S | SS ej @i ew @ q @i AB AAS AcAg^ pA @aS | PSA^S cFc ~B ABAS AAS PA @S ASAc TS | H S wp, ̩S\Uf wmvɴ qFA jZSR J PA A@a ~ɮccn Z s | J PA @i Ar\@pA PcAS@ pAgA AO R s | S cA ~gF^fH B s ~TSF ^dAO R TS AO R s Acm@ | J ASB @ - "B^Aa Ar\f cer, ArQ Aa AcS @B @Aa TAO ~ a |" gɩ@بT jq AUZaS - "J TBBAv AaU AcSf, TSv AaU ~Avmv c gc@ | jq vS ToF J BfcS s @v |"



|| AOnS R FSOO ||


wwS^S, ~cSf^S, BFAA^S R cf^S Ar\f Ag o ~SH @ f^SR ~kc c aAc jJ@aS | A@ا J ~J@ aAc J ASBmo w iAaU | ~SF@SR Ar\f gc ZS Sq | J aAc ~eZF - ToF بU aAc R prF AOnq crf | J ~J@ بU aAc j Bfc^ s TS AFq بU بv ~a | mvU nTA̮ cUAaUS - "
he paints the portraits of many flowers " c @T بU ToF wUެبU aAcq J cɻT | cf^S ިn jq AOn@U c^ j@c cUAaUS -"f T j ASިH @ ~AT بU aAc ~J@ AS |" ASB ~S@c jA wUR J aAc R ~SFSF @B rSf ~S@ - 1948 U 10q TO | A\Uf jq rSf R AЩ Sd XoS @S | OfS @ J@ j@Av Ao R R q UQF @U@ɩ R @UgcS lc R rSfR | 1952 U @U@ɩ wgSTxv ~v @UB j@Av rSf | f^S AcAOn @T بU aAc ~J@ jq ~cw AkH U J p cwSAU | rAcr, BeAU ɦ @ ~S AcAg^ oS ~OS بUwa mA@ ATUS AS BfcSq AAS fQ-ASfQ OAU ^Sm UUS @aS | H cwS ArAcAr بU j@ ~AgSc Tcr | J p cwS @pA sS ASB mgc w iAaU | rA^AS@S @J@ب TAv @@r wU O UAw j@ ~SSF^ wU cwS PA @AaUS - Aީ ~F^ ZAr AaUS | S sc TZ U AUe-j , ~T, BTdU, ذ gpA wa @ R rZrZ@ US wa AcA @AaUS | H Or cH, PcAOnF ca IUTU @̩ | jZSq J PA "W" c Acrg̩f scf @B R J Ar\@pA c A@aq @ sS | q j@v T AaU sZS cf^S SS SS wS rA^AS@ةS ~@r TZ, ިn p cwS R بU Z TS " d pH s, TAv cJAr Ri wS T |"


|| AF ~Sw ||


f^S c^ BS j A@a ~a, J Bɩ AcAg^ H R @fA AU@ j c s AcmpA @ U ~SR j@v cpl @B | wpASTɻH @B, A@\S R ^ R f^S j@v AcrK Z AaU | cf^S AcS A AaUS - j@ cA cArAS @ OqS S | J Z Tv f^S j@ j@ Swp, @H@ػ, rFTUf, ިSEO, fOf wp PA @aS | J jq mީFAr\ oS swf AaUS S @ R S^UU cɮ | mF S R M^s j@-j@Av wp ~ScF ia | f^S jq Z OA̩˻ ~˻ BS Acm, jce jq @H f^S@ TUOS TZR ަ |


AcS an R f^S AF ~Sw AaU | Ar-AcAr AF J ~oFS AaU | qeAB gK J ZU c^ USɦ jUTmv cUAaUS - "jq AcK ~T er Sq s OOɻ @U qeAB A ~BS @c cS J ToF AaU |" rf @pG @pUSf ~So rK c UZ "
On the Edges of Time " cqAv ަU j AcK j@T R s | ASB@ ~^U Z BfcSmpA OS j-j@ AcU p^ ! OTl@ II qeAB UZ j cqj gK ~F^ mha^ R cUfU | f^S jq cqAvq AީpmpA ST A ceU UZS | J UZ ToF ~T ~S@ A@a BS A s cf^S UZR q S | ceUr j@Av wMcT sw @, Aީ ~rr @pf TSKBS @ Zc AO@K@ gc B gK cU waS - @R ASB@ project @SAS | emp J S AaU | ~rWK cXoOA̩ AAS ceU ~Scɰ @S | j j@ AcrK @fA J | A@a @AcR UZS - ިdK TS (1937); cCUf T, rK S, qFA | J w\ -cJoWv (1937) AcAOn @Ar AaU | j@ g\U@ w\ 1368 ^r c | QT US AAS AUZaS @T | c ceU AcSAcK@ cq Ac AAS Av cq UZS - HLL jce ~AgcFA | jq cq Av PcArF J gK | gK ToF @SR@T ~Ue@ c ~ArsF Sq, s AcS OS Q j@^ swf |  UQF @ AcK- jq Av cq-q AAS @r @S Aީ TpF | mgcUB@ R Aީ Ag ~Aggk ިn ~e@O ~L@r g̮ SAS |


|| AcAOn @TO ||


rA^AS@ةS R Acrg̩f P^ASS BfcSsn@ ArA\ީ @ UAaUS f^S | sZS sZS @aS, Or dAO@ Ar\ mr ^ @ UaS | e @BR J @T Qة AaU S | J @SF SA^Sf cf AUZaS "cc ^S rmR Ac AaUS | ~oAS@gc
Steam Boiler j sF AcAg^ ABAS A@ gc @T T PA @ s AAS rZS | BAU, ~O qFA Zc gU PA @ S | cO TB @ AAS q Zc gU ɩ S | wA^ ɴ jce AcAg^@T xv gU PA @S | rK A@ Arty Perfumes cU A@a BB ABAS cB aAaUS | jaɦ AaU J Ar@ Sr | q AAS OU sS Ar@ | ~ j@v ABASR AAS Zc gUcɮS - U ɮ ZU | AAS ^F H AcB ~ɦ c, ~S@q ~ɮS | cf^S j AcK Zc AcA @r @UR AAS jv c^ @SAS | fOOɻ ToF jB cBS, cc wSR wqS c cTQ @S S | c^ΨclU f^S WAS TSK TS ASB mgc jq A@AU @r ީ |


|| Fw BfcS ||


cm䨩 AީpgA Fw R MBSF@r f^S T cFAL AcU | AOBfcSq AAS J Aީ m@ Aݩ @ c J BSF @B TSK i ~S@ Fw mf@ @aS | T BfcS J ~of @pAKAcS ArQ kcceU Pީp@ BATA @B Uw S-Uw Aީ ~S -@B a rA^AS@ةS @B swS @ | AXfc sZS J ~TA@ sS, ZSR J vv Awf ~oFS @B ~T Z Aީ q OU s | rK @Av ca aɦ fW@U AAS AcS ArAT@ rA^AS@ةS c @aS | jc ~T ݩ gc AZAS @SRT | jq TSKAv s˻ TkUFS ݩ AS | sswF TsɻR AAS SAS | ިn jq A@v @ ~ U@ ݩ cIAS | - A@ا mrfU Aީ ~crFq TT ~Sgc @AaUS | q f^S ޡr ca B^AS AAS AUZAaUS -
"T @U AO

c Ac

gAcKF ~AgTZ AAaU TU,

UAw sr Sq U |
@T sZS hOT

ZS @Tf ST
SFq @ j@r |"

Aީ @a @ R jq ~rfcɻq AaU ިn BfcS r ިm |



|| ޮe ||


j@Av AcrK F ݩ ~T ~S@q BS Sq s r mofS c f^S AЩ Sd @a av AwAaUS s BSwHTS ~AoS@ wSAv g̩cK Bɩf f | @B To @ c AAS A ~S | jqgcq ݩ BS Sq s 1951 U Acrg̩f s @^f AcrAcFU AAOA Ug @ AaSR f^S ~^ O @ | rA^AS@ةS cQ|Os AcFU T an f^S Acrg̩f AcrAcFU T Os S | AAS a-ca BSF ASs UR gɻwF AcK U s AAS ca rA^AS@ةS a ɰS Aw ccɮ d @S | Sfc ASgp J a W-ZAS c AcrAcFU @B @ s-~S^ AAS S, @A ~qS cBU Ag @B @ Aw AAS ~S^ A US | c rA^AS@ةS J swsw AaU | AO@U SFOf TSKAv TpFR WvU SF | 1961 U cf^S rcK B^B^f @UU ިn TpFecɰAv Bq c wU | f^S j@Av @ j- mH @A - "qAS cc BfcS j@Av a^ cB Z OUAaUS, TpFR a^ީS AS |" 1961 U 3 BS ɰS f^S STSfc BfcSAv ~cS |





jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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