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Arr/A@r

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cf^S wS R MTF^S

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A@r MTF^S


2001 U MTF^S i@ب (1901-1974) B^rcAK@f kH U | U@mpA AAS ~B Acmp, ~O J BfcSZAS ~T sZS TU oA, ZS AZ c AcAOn cHhav @ةvq BU | @US J@ BɦɮJ@ i@ب Ac rK BFAy R AOA @ s |

MTF^S TAK c^S i@ب BF ިn AXB^S Mn | J Aީ AAF@ of^S i@ب R Tɩ OdcU cf | AީT TAK c^S J ST@H @S | MTF^S AaUS ceU g Tl pArfU AcAv ˻@ ̮kf -- Acrr@ ceU AcAr AO^Ac | r BSfA, empA, f, Ar\@U, qAɮ, rS R ~˻SfA TpXo a J UZ, cp R ~UOA̩ | PA@ M^s ~ST, TSSrfU ~SSF, ~oH @im R cA ~Ao@f | J A@a gKH ~T rS MgwF AaU -- , sAcA R ̮co ATrH AU AaU ~ScF | J BPSA@ cpR AFH BU i | c gK J wb ZU AaU R Acrf gK @ ~ScɰR @aS cr A@a OS | Acrf AF wgf S ~Ao@f AaUS AAS | jTSq j@ cTAn@ cFALL ~Ao@f MTF^S |

~c j@q AAS cFAnTf | J Ac empA@ o Acf AAS OUAaUS -- An BSfA @AaUS ~BfcS | J AcA@ R TAB@ AAmA AcO @Bv Zc B AaU S ݩ | AAS j@Av cp cUAaUS jq -- "ZS cf^S, ZS AXB^S, F^S, BFAA^S -- jS c aS | Ag @ ~AT ZS Aav@ cA OU wUT j@c BPSA@ BfcS |" A@ا \UZswF jq s j c @T@ ToF @R cf^S wS J f @a BfcS rK s^ | J H cf^S wS ~ɮS "wgf wS, T-~S" | jq ASc^ ~T MTF^S jq AcrK A@Av ASq ~UOS @c |

AXB^S Ac wS AaU Bɩ | AAS ASB S wq UR ~TSF co AaU J jce AXB^Sq ceU mAUA T Xgc@ | MTF^S AA Tcf wS AaU ~A To jce @H cf^S AcrK Anf AaUS | J BFi ɰ AS^S cf^S @U wS @f Ac AAO | j S Aʩf@ ATU MTF^S B^ | cU@ cݮ @ AAS cf^S wS wqS | J mpA@ "snf" AUZaS -- "Zc Arcݮ @ ~AT wS wq ̩T | .... j@ j@AS gcU WT gC Zv i cq T ~T@ cQ|f wq cUS | TrA ToF cq ~T@ wq | ~T cݮ ZS JO ca c, TS cA iS g wa U@, ~T ɰ AS^S T wd wA, w ~UZ\U, ~T@ J @Jo cA ToF JA wS oaS, "S ceU, ~AT T gUcA |" j@c jwq TW ~AT ~S@U wS wqUT | cf^S ~ ~AT BS "AT s g Aa" jq @fSAv wq | ZS ~T cݮ ɩ ~v ca c |" 26r BSf 1909 U F cUf An@ AUZAaU (cScɰ)-- "j@Av Ar@i ewf j@Av ~Ao@ا Tn sw @AAaU | @i AaU rfTS MTF (MTF^S) i@ب | cU@ ~TSF ̮TA^ @im rcH Amϩ ~AAcp^ slSAm ^K Ug @AAaUS | jTS ~r @ ~SF S s AH c jq cU@ ewf Bw AXf cf^S fTS qc |" MTF^S f Ag jq T cA:@r | ~^B @ s ~oH @i wS cUq ɩ ca Ar@ cf^S ASB wqc sw AAaUS | cf^S wS jq J ~cwS ̨, BfcS rK ~oF s^ s J@ wgfgc gAc @a | AAS AUZaS, "j@@U cf^S wS cݨTU ~T H ASrɮ ASa | @pA ~Ucɩ Tq cf^S wS Bgc ~T BfcS@ AW AaU AS | wS wS SAa, wS wS ArZAa | ArZAa wS cf^S @a, ArZAa AS^S @a |"

1917 U ATn qSAmvAvrS @ TFAv@ r @ @U@ɩ @ew ~AocrS AAS R AS^S PX@i "r r SA^ @A" wSAv w AcrK re Ug @AaUS | jq caq "@W" Sv@ T ~AgS | j i@ب̰ gkAT@ cf^S me wAaUS "wTaɦ CTAv " -- cJAr cABAaUS MTF^S, AAS AaUS i@ب̰ OU | "wɦ wU", "w^f ~cS", "crf@H", "r@ب^U", "\Sf" gpAR AAS ~erwH @AaUS | cf^S p empA@ ~ɦ AcAOn AAS AaUS ASAT w@ | TUTS Rm @a A^mSf wS ArQ @AaUS | J wU cf f S cf^S ~ɰU @@Av wS cJoAaUS | wSAU @ MTF^S @i wgf̩ ZAS@v ~^B R s | wSAU -- "~rg cS A@ A@ Bw", "@ cJAr ASArg cABU", "c^Ψ " | ASAv wSq "rK cKH" BSF AO | rK cKH T ~SSAv 11q vc, 1926 AcAOngcS | jAv AOUS @AaUS AS^S | ~SS oS w@ AaUS MTF^S | AS^S @ LLR jq T cf^S J AO SS wS j@ j@ MTF^S@ ArAZ ZAaUS | jq ب\UO^ (cU) TUScfr j@Av UZ (@Acd ~AB @U wS ~ɮ, ~Tp, 30r BS 1978) @ \UZ @A -- "\Sf ~AgS wS @Ac @بT ~T@ cJAr cB AaU ... ~O ~T O ~S@ gU cJAr cAB @Ac Acq j@BS AaUS ... AAS US @Ac gɩyMn MTF^S i@ب | o cJAr S -- cf^f BF ZS@ AS MTF^S BA Zc @T AaU | sTS U wU ~ TAS B̰ | AcS ~ MTF^S s @SR wS ASB wU U ASS ~ @ AU AS wqS | T c T J@ JO ްɻ wS wq ST, A@ا ~ɮU AS AAS @ ަS | cf^S J wS g OAc@Ai AAaUS c SA AS^S@ ~ OAaUS MTF AScc @f J wS ިAv @xvU ަۨS -- A@ا AcAoAUA ~SF, MTF^S r @ ɦ A wS BF a @ew @B cA wUS | cAS ~crF ~c MTF^S@ cf^f ~ɮ Z AwAaU, wq c Tmv Ac S UR cf^f Ac ASEOq |"

cf T MTF^S BSfA BA ަ UwUS -- A@ا J Acɰ wS ZSR H R @i | rK cKH T ~AgS T @U@ɩ @بZFɩ ިAUr @ATrS vwv@ F BSF cT cSS ha BɦɮJ@ cA MTF^S j@ةU W, AAS n | j c^ AAS AUZaS "snf" -- "~ AAS SS wS Pf ha | AS ToF @ةc ~ɮ J (cf^S) gpF cSTUf ~T@ Uc @ | J @a @ wSU ArZ ~SF ArAZ AT |" j @ cI s J wfA@بrU R cf^S @ةZAS ~m AaU s OO s-@BAv AS^S @S, AvR MTF^S @aS | cf^S wS cF J ~TSF Qة -- ASB wqS, aɦR ~SF rZS jce f LLOOɻ X ASB fco@ ^ @ UAaUS | AAS ASBR cr A@a SpFwfSS ~BS R AOUS @AaUS | rAT@-@pK@ U sF BSF qASgAAv qSAmvAvv MTF^S "ǩOn" ~SS ~BS @S | Jq l c ST@ j@ dHf q ~SS ~TSF SpF AcrS @S | jq T cCAU gAc THf @rF T SpF ~er ASUS | j cr A@aAS cf^S "Svf kB" ~AgS T s @S | 1925 j MTF^S AcAOngcS cKɻ wS ~SS @S | AAS AaUS j c ~SS ASAT w@ | cf^S jq ~SS sw S | ca (1926) cKɻTU j ~BS AcAOngcS | AS MTF^S rAT@-@pK@ U ɰ@ | J BSfA BfcS q c^Ψ -- @Bf SBdU R SAUSf@^ @ -- BSq wS Bw TSK | AAS AUZaS -- @ة Bw SAUSf@^, SBdU R ~AT wS wAa | U ~˻e@v BSF 1926 j c^ lc ~BS @US ~FUcv U |

j j@v T wS nT J Acha Wv wU | T A@ wA^Bf @ew, ~Ac^ SfA, SBdU qUT R TBɬ ~T rAT@-@pK@ BSfA R crK UASS TFcɰf TBSfA AAS kH cFp US | MTF^S BPSA@ BfcS jq AccS @ "snf" Acr gc cAH ~a | BTɻSf, Tm qFA Bw J@ s U U @B | ZS@ fTS TBrS gc nTr J oH U wS wR qFA @بT Ar\ ToF j@oS J@ ~a -- J ASB @ -- "BfcS O wS@ c @v jAv@ JA@ |" A@ا OSgc AAS wS Bwl @ AcAha^ UR ~cOS cf^S wS ~OU ~ɮS AA qU |


Tm- cf^S R MTF^S
BPSA@ @To J@ c AcAOn AS wa | q SSS Bw SS @T@ AAS BA۩ AaUS | 1930 U cf^S sZS ~ɦ AcrAcFU Acv cp c cAUS ~S, ZS MTF^SR ZS aS | cAUS @ Tm sc @ ~AT Oncf AUZaS -- "cf^S cAUS @ Tm sc MTF^cc ~ ~AT f˻ snf AaUT ... q j(??) j@Av @T MTF^S ~A ̰ A wS @AaUS @^ A U US MK S U -- .... ~T oH @ AAS r @T c cf^S @S jq wSAv MJaAaU | ... cf^S T TS @AaUS co AAS ASB TSq wSAv SAaUS, ~cOS @S m, il TS U MTFcc @im | ~T@ cUUS "~Aggk SAaUT | "

MTF^S AUZAaUS "wS ~T ~A wa ~S@ AS | ... c ~BR s TI TI @QOF Aav@ j A wS TU, v ASa@ ~T ~cI ~o, ~T wUAT |" wS Sfc ~Q AS @ sS AaU, AA ~SU @ ~c q Bw |

cf^S ASB wSAU O g MTF^S@ AS cUAaUS | @Ac BfAc@U AAS g AS SAS cU MTF^S :Z @r @aS | q qha@ A Angc cf^S wS Bw A jUS -- @ AcXo Tsɻ AA @ AL ASUS | 1948 U TAKgcS A @US cf^f ArQ em "PcAS@" | qA^ cf OMoSf Z ~Aggk cUAaUS "T jq ~^@ W ~U BUU |" cf^S wS o wR S, @p TT UANo ~ɰr AS MTF^S cT ~UOS sw cf^f AcrS Fw ASAaUS 1949 U TO T @U@ɩ qASgAAv qSAmvAvv j@Av ~SS @ | cf^f ~^ASA LL@ BSwH ToF A̩ @ BSF AAS d @US A ca 25 r PcrZ TAKgcS ~UOS sw cf^f ~SS | j oS ~SS T ~UɦS UAaU | J fOS @ةv wgf AaU, J ~UAO AcKAU @q cI s | AcKAU -- f cf^S, cf^f nTAc@r, cf^f PcAOnF, cf^f rAcr o, cf^f S mS, cf^Pgcf, cf^f a^, cf^S wS R ceU U@خf, cf^S ǩf | J ASBm ~SSF AFOS R fOS T^ jq ~UOSAU | PTF^S ~oH c@gA jq ~UOSAU AS sJ SAaUS, J TS ASEOq ~AcmHf ~Agک ~a | jq SAv c^ AS cf^S wS ST w^Av @Ar AaU 1368 AZN | jq cq ToF MTF^S@ jTS gc R s s J ~SFSF w^ "nf", "snf", "Ar @Ac" qFA @ m^ |

jAS cOOɻ ~B ~T cf^S wS c^ s AO^ @A c BS ~wf q, ~S@erq MTF^S J wgf cf^f OS AS UANo @AaUS | cf^S wS TT@ J @a Tk AaU, -- AAS cUAaUS -- "cf^S J wSAU @ZS w vc ~o Ac cFc @SAS .... @ R PX @r UfUgkAT J wS |" cf^S A@gc Twf ~r @R ASB ̮pA @aS, J wS AcAg^ w ATrH, U@خf cFc, Acrf wS pA qFA AcAg^ A@ AS J ~UOS OUa | AAS ~Sgc @aS s cf^f g̩f f ɩfS cXo BU SS ̮pA ɩ | g̩f cA f wS @ R ToF ~Ao@er Qnq @SR ATU AaU S | q ATU WvU cf^S wS | AAS ~UOS ToFT cAIaS s SS ̮pA BSF @fgc cf^S AcAg^ wAwHf ATrH O @aS -- TS c@T ~SgkA @r c a | cf^f Ac@pA ASR AAS pA ~@KH @aS | jq q J "cf^f cU" c^Av @Ar "T@UfS" An@ 1955 U R sfA fBw ~UɦS Ri | cf^S BfAc @@UfS s mAUA PA a, cB Z Q AAS T @r @S | jqgc cf^S wS c A@ AS MTF^S gcaS, ~S@ Qnq sw @ jAw @ | ~ScF gA J UZSf jAw wa cf^S wS ~ cFZF | cA, U@خf, EOɩF qFA c A@a AS J fQ ASfQ @ MTF^S ~A ^gc AcrKH @aS jq "cf^S wS" cqAv | cɴU fQ c^ ~ST gK cUaS, "ZJAv pA ksTZf بU T -- بvc TAv, Aި c TAv , A@ا A@ @c ~@r A@ |" cm䨩: cf^S BfcS ~B @T ToF J kH qAɮ wSq c @ cAr R s | jq kH TSKAv@ ZJB Sc @BAv MTF^S d @AaUS "cf^S wS" cqAv |


MTF^S R mf rfTf
1938 U ~Tc AAe Ac @SF SpF R AOnAr\f rfTf AAej J Acc | 1947-j rfTf i@ب SpFSS BSF j@Av ~UZF "ɦ v AT" MTF^S AUZAaUS jce ASB ~cpAR @AaUS | 1941 U jAU T MTF^S cf^S@ TSc BwS w j@Av @Ac AUZ ~So @US | cf^S ZS ~m, TpF ~w | rA^c WK AUZaS J "cf^f" w^, cf^S @, "MTF ~T@ cUa TSc BwS w j@v @Ac AUZ | cU ~AT s^ BwS wAa, TSc BwS @AAS | q j@v @Ac OS @Aa, vq c SccK wS |" UZ U -- " TTSc ~" | cf^S ZS UZSf o TF Sq ; PTnf cf AUZ ASUS @Ac TZ-AS:p OS | BfcS TSKq BwS wAaUS cf^S ; c Mn ~So BfcS j@c rK sɻ j@Av ~EOs wS OS @ ~T A wUS |

PcAS@ aɦR 1965 U MTF^S vw A̮O qSAmvAvv mS @US | cf^S@ AS OOɻ R BSwH ToF MJa c BSF J jq ɮ | AAS ASBR "Sf" ST Z j@Av wS cq UZS | jq w^ A@a wS ToF cf^S wS a sS R s ; rf Acrf ATrHR A@a wS ~a | SS AS wSR AAS cr A@a AUZAaUS, s@ wHf cU s |

cf^S wS AS ASU oS R @ AkHgc ~Lw @ s Tl @BAv AAS UANo R TSSrfU A @ waS, MTF^S i@ب cf^S ˻@ ̮kf Ac ~T ToF aS |

(aAcAU MTF^S i@ب snf w^ (PcAS@, 2003) @ SR a)

(cɮ, TO, 2006)





jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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