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of Oncf


wS AaS cf^S -- cf^S wS: OS @ASf; Tf S ; FAɮ ; @U@ɩ; 2007 ; p: 240 |



H ca ~w 1939 U 14 T cf^S Teި PTnf cf TS cUAaUS : Z Aci@ب wS T^ UZ S, j@@T OUSq cUq c | ... @T wS AUZAa ? B B wS, wS T - A@v AcrK @ش UQF @ S w, ceUr@ gA AAa | ~T@ gU , ~T wS gUc @f @ ? jTS T^cF ަU @TS sS Uw jZS, sZS, cf^S wS ~T cBfcS, sS, empA cm | A@ا BfAc@U AAS J wS jTS ~ AA Z sSAS | q wS TpXo A@ا e@fH ~ɮS ZS ɩ AaU g^ @Av Sf@xi, ~CU wS @BS ArQ@ sL jce rA^AS@ةS A̮ | B B wS (@p wHS B A@a @T) jce wS T s ^ Sq | q T ~T b ZUAa c AAa @vAa J, Aa @p˻ ިHF, A@ا c Wva ~S@ | wS ~S^s c AST^H s ~BS AAS @ Z waS, J BfAc@U A@v @ش UQF @ S w cU jq s ~AgTS c Qg vq AF | @U qAɮ gU @ ~SocS @U cI s, J AF@ ~T ~Swf sTS cr @BS AaUS TSq Acof ArAcR AaU cr U gA | q @Tq AaU J wS TIA ~ɻl rɩ eZF | q 1895-j ArUq UZ I I cAK cAo- T OTl@ wSAv @ػ BS TTA@ AcAr cFA Ac T^cF ~T gAc U | wSAv @Ar AaU g̩f An@ 1304 ~Kb eZF | gɰ T ԮAF An@ rO^ TBA wSAv @ػ UZS :

mAUA rfs cf^S i@ب j@Av wS ~a | wSAv AScɻAO AT rN TA Tn ; gc AcrKL, s cf^S SF @Ac AS@v ~r @ s, q kH ~gc |

jZS UQ @ AcK s j@v wS AcK ~UOS c Ac T^cF @ ha U R wS@ AccOS ToF S jS | q wS@ TS ha AT AScɻAO rNTATn ~ɻl j sS wS@ ~kHgc Z | ~EOs s, jq wSvq ~T sZS A ZS TS ToF c OU mpA ɩ | wpcɮf hOH ~ ~ ~ ~ - s ~ScF S rNTA@ AAC TS@ s Bw AS s ~AScOSf | j A cݨ ~er @ @ @dHF sS ArUq q @c@ XcQ IH cpAo @UU oAS TS@ ~U vS | AsAS wS TSK SS J Q wS s˻ gw ~c jce en^ T^cF ~SAg |

A@ا AsAS wS TI ? ~ AAS sZS wfkn -j T cq w^@ R c hO wS gɽ @pGoS c^FoF T TSK S ZS J T^cF R Acީ gAc U | AAS BFAA^S@ AOAi AUZAaUS :

.... AcrK Accc-@p @AU a^Tn Sq | @U @ gc R @AcL A@ | A@ا a^fS @ wS AS^ ~Sswf | Accc gc ZA a^ jq ްF OS B @A UqaS |...

rO^ ~Agsw cf^S wS gc kH ~gc ~ @pGoS ~Agsw q wS gc R @AcL @UR a^Tn Sq | jZS a^ TS A@ @Ac a^ ? @ m S, A@ا ~T BAS wS cHf @Ac T a^ ~AASީ @ S, wS @ ~SK, U w @cFa^ J@J@ gA SR s | ~ɮU j@v @ ~T TS AZ S s wS Qn cO ~w @S , J pA | ~ɮc q wS ss wS Ar\f - c TI ~ɮcS | cf^S j@ Zc gU cIAaUS cU rA^AS@ةS A @AaUS ewfgcS | ZS jSAaUS J wS H Q ArQ@, AsAS mAUA OS | Jq w UaS wS U R cf^wS AcrS @p XoA | j swU nT nT PA a rɩ, gɽ R TIA Ag | J wS Zc B jr To Ta ~BS @AS, q J@ ~^F c Z cU J wS T@, Acm R ~U, AcQ R OɡUF, ~^w TMS ~O wgf cHf@ AcrK @ش UQ @ S, ~^ ZSR s^ @ AS | c Ff @xi cUaS, ~T wS@ gUc @f @ ?

n^rf q gAcKFlcHf U a | J o rcK ~ɮ^ T ~T J wSq ~ - s wS s˻ m ASoɻH ~BR @ i AAS ~T, AAS PcAOnF, PrA\@ ~SSF R wS XoA AT @ | A@ا q Fw ~T QA^ Sq | T pr q wS Tr R ~^TU @cUq ZJB OUAa SS R sL | jq sTS 240 pcFf j@Av cq Tf S Tocf ~^KH : wS AaS cf^S | ArST @ cq BfcF m Ri S q ަ w^ AAOA | s cU ~a :

c@MAH@ TAH T, cf^S@R Zc pA@H @S rK Sq | wSAU @ gAc sA - J cwS AaS ha^ ~a wSAv OS qAɮ | mgAc@ c ~mgAc@, SS AAmA wS OS @aS, AaS, waS AAS | jq@T ASr wS AaS@ qAɮ ew @ a jZS - AAv F TAH@ة A @ l ASr @ R a | .... cf^S ~^BfcS qAɮAv cIc Q jq @ASfAU dL q ~TSF |

jc m U s, Tf S wSwA@ ~S^Sf SS | wS T AAS ASިH cA | wSAcFR J ~ | q ~a AcOrfU j@ AmUQF \ |

A@ا TB @ jvR s fW@U ~T cf^S wS Aa wfAcS @ jce @iT S TS U R U cIAa ASAa mAcS ZAU @ | Av e@USq cf^wfA @UnT TS AS, \UZ @ AS OSw vgkAT c UQF | cf^S ASBR co @T OSAS, @H J FQ ASrS s wfAcS @r J wSAU@ AAS mS @AaUS gc A@ @ q AcSFɮ @AaUS kB T mr @pA ~SAS@ R AcAOn Bɩf ArST AB | U j@ذq r@ ~wR Hg o cf^ewf SAa ~ g wAa @ R Am sMwF, wSAcArĩ R ewfA@ UcHF | BS OqAS @S wS J @S wS AO AaU, c wS @S Acr @TS TSA@ c @pA@ة ToF B^ ASAaU | @ AaUS T rɩ, @TS AaU c wS FQ AAn | rA^c, qA^ c PrUB̵S J A@a UZ @@Av wS OS @ASf R UQF Accp @AaUS | ~R @ @ v@ OS c ~L@ R wa j@Av Av wS pA ~SK A@ا Tf Sq cT c T rm A̮ wS AaS cf^S@ cF @US - cF U ~S^ AOAcm | ~crF J @B B a AEOTc @ @Ar cf^OScUf 4˻ Z @r U, @H jq Zq cT cf^ewfAU @USnT TS sɮc mS R T \UZ AcSFm AaU |

Tf S ~T j@BS TSF wcK@ | 1940 U Bɩ@ jq @بkUf cFA USTkU@ AF i @aS sɰcި AcrAcFU cXoc c ~ of^S - FQ ASr | U J gcS@iT R SSA@ oAc ABɮ T @q JO cJo AaU | s OT@ H q J UZ cXoc c BfcS OS jce rA OoF en^ SS ~BS F ^OS | cf^S AcK Tf BSOS ɮ j@v AcAOn wTf | s T AO cf^S ~LfmBS R ԮT@U R cf^S cq Av | 2007 j T T c jq wS AaS cf^S cq, s AcިU PcAOnF A@fH, c F TpXo cf^wfA T 298Av wS kn^S @ AAS ~T Ar AaS sTS TSq oSF @aS | J cqAv ToF s cFAv ha^ a U ciS AO | jv m s, cf^S wS AcK J BfAc@U ~ THɫ T sZS sv@ب TA F ~a AAS aS, Sv @aS jce AcO @ cI OaS q F @ةv ASgswF | BS @S STf FQذrf AUAZ cS AAS ZAB @ c ^ @ AXo @S AS | j @ cI sha cf^S c J FQ mgBS @ػ Tf gAsnf SS, ce F WvS l | j rɩ c ~T T ABɮ AcrK @ a | j@Av STS Z s@ |

TB j @f B jU YިTI wSAv ~Uɰ S AUZaS :

1896 U J (cf^S) SpL "ZTZUf g" ST j@Av AF R ewf TUf mAީ | ~AT g @AST gF AaUT | ... ZTZUf ~ɮ AcZFɩ w@ Ao@S (ɰ) wmTf J hO SU TAЩ wS wA ~T TS̵S @AS | cf^S ewf Ag jTS cTZf s wmTf Tr AAS wS cJAoS jce ScAO wSAU Ao@S (ɰ) ZTZUf ~ɮ wA SqS | ^oF j@Av wS TS ~a - "TB j @f B"...

j @ػ Tf S T^cF : ~U mpA ASEOq J H @ @c, @H s AZ R a wSAv AO AaU 13 ca | aɦ Ao@ STR c gU ~a | wSAv ~crF AA^gC, TkU wSAv U "T ^ U B rˮ T" (. wcKH - w^TU - 3)|

cf^wS l^S ST UZ@ @ةv @ػ sTS cI s TSq UQHf s cf^wfA FQ rɩ cS @ةvq ok̩ wa | c ~U AcAr F ToF s qAʩAv ~a, ~ɻl Ao@ wR wf wS ~ɰU cf^S cHf AUZS q kn ZJB aS TkU wSAv | j @MkU cp kH U jce m U jq cH s TkU wS mpA cf^S @ZSR @ZSR 13 ca R wS cJoaS |

mpAw H ~@Av STS Tf AZaS ~B c C C ATr c wSAv | rA^AS@ةS T sw anf ~AT S J SpF OS cf^S ASc^ (r̰f sw^ 1388) AUZaS :

c rlc rK "~B c C C ATr c" wSAv ~T cq j@خ SOAaUT | cf^S SOaS cɴU gA, ~T ~T CcC RS ~@r A@ A OU W W SOAa ~ wqAa | ... ~cS, wwS, T cq i SO sw AAaUS | A cAB cAB U i@ A SOaS AS | ~ ~T SOaS jUTmv c, cS c | ...

Tf S r UaS :

jAv @c@ @ ? rA^AS@ةS @ ASEOq S, @H ~cSf^S ASgq j@خ @ZS ZS sS AS | jAv c 1329 cN @U@ɩ ~AgS mpA, ~ɻl 1922 ZpN | AS rlc ~AgSf AaU, T AS ~U Av, AS TFɦS Av | cf^S ^Fɮf gkAT@ ~AgS @AaUS, AS^S i@بɻ, B gkAT@ wwS^S, T^f AaUS T^S | AXf AS (18 vc) Aީ AX^S TpFecɰ AS^S cUި A sS, @@Wxv ToF PA ~cSf^S i@بɻ gkAT@ STS | ~AT S (B^ 17q BUq 1912) cݮ ZS r |

r ca c cUFmpA H @q | c jUTmv R cS c @S ~ɩ @H Tf jA waS | J rA^AS@ةSq @S |





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jq s^ j ~T TZTAZ q j@ ALL@ r | @S wS gw A@ q wS OS@U, vgkAT c wfA@ cFAw ~SK ~T @pq @B Uw ? o s@, wS AaS cf^S cq @ BS sha ~^BS ~U wSAv 1886 U AO | jc r^O^ TUSAcr ASBm cS 1922 U cf^S m@xi rS mpA Xo @aS Tf :

... TS sZS A ZS @S @S T ASB TS wS @S | .. 6q MK ^FcU rA^AS@ةS Aw MJOAa | @Ac ZS @S av j@v SS cA - j cA ST A^@ | o ZS av W | ZR ~T@ cUUS, AT jZSq @c | ... wgf WT gC Aw S UT wS @aS ~^BS ~U| cc A A wS OUU, ɩ o | A A q @, ~^BS ~U | @U TA^ cUUT, @U ~AS ɩ WTS AS | j@v cUUS, TS c fA۩ AaU q wS @AaUT | g A@ TS ~@r Tq ^ wU |

Tf S ZJB @ BShaS :

j c 1922 U @ | s AcA@ cF @ \UZ @ a Av U, cf^S @AS @SF Tf cf J mTf Sw^S woF Aco, s AHT J Acha Wv | Aީ cf^S@ q gɻw ~S@ZAS cS @ AaU |

jq F @ cI wU 1886 U UZ j@Av wS 1922 U (~ɻl 36 ca ) wgf cf^S j@ j@ w OUaS ~LcS rT BSF | wS J jvq BfcS p | Ai@q | A@ا rɩAc jq cɦA Fv@ب AcrK wS gw @S @B Uw A@ ? ʩ TS @ A r WK j@ T^cF s,

F wS @ ~ F ASTɻH @, j v cS @ sA TAR R s @ZS, TF c TvS | sA Ai@-Ai@ FR , ~AASg̩q c F @ةv @a@Aa AS ~T | ... ~Ao@er T ~T BSv @ s AcAQ, @ s FT, co Bwl @ ~mp |

Ar\-~mɰS @v j@c UAaUS A ~Sɻ | ewf ~ɮ qAɮ AS ZcZc BSc cH j cɦa Z J TS AaU rɩ c gɽ ASBm ~mɰS v ia Tm j@ co | ASB ~Agک ToF A Ar\ MJac sha e@بAO, ASBm Ac@r ha dXo, sAR Zc BS ha ~S@ | @v jr ɲA@ cf^ewf-Bw QR gc Zc swF | wS rSS j AS @S@T FAcm s j@cq OU S S, A@ا c @ wS ~^Bw @ةv MJa ~T ~ @ةv-c cF @, vR cr gcc |

Tf S ASEOq jq K Kf SS | wS rSS F AcrS AAS SS AS | AAS @cU 298 Av cf^ewf SFU@@ ^OS @aS | A@ا j@v ~re@ ~a | UAU ceU wS ~ɮ Z sha w@ ަaS cO@ | U jTSR , s wS AaS cf^S cq @ F ew @ @S Ar\f wS ~w cwAcm @ ccS |

jc Z @, Tf S J jq rTrfU ~O ̮ @BAv @ػ ~LQ @f cU OqaS : J scQH U,

cf^S wS AcK ~T scf oH R ~Agک AaS cU j@Av TfS ɰS @B @ OU | @TS ~T TS , jq wSAU ~SA@U @q sS jq @Tq BS AaU | AO@U oq ~T BSF jq @T AcSFm AaU kB wS ~ T wS, cKɻ wS ~ c^ wS | ...
j BSF cO crf @ f ~crF wfAcS cqZAS | j wSAU OS@U R Sq, OS@U ~Ssf wS BSR Sq | gc ~Ssf ha@ BS c wS, ~TR qgcq gc ~gFm | jq BSv ~T jTSq ~gF wa, S Aw ~T TSq S s KU ca j@Av aU AUZAaU "wS @بT @بTI", ɩr ca j@ sc@ AUZAaU, "c TS Z", c ~Ar ca MJa j@ cpXo AUZAaUS, "~T ~ ̩ @a cS, cS Ac sq" | "rCSwwS W WSWv" @ "j j rFTaWS AS" s^ 112Av cKɻ wS OS @ s ɩKA ca T UwAaU @R ~T TS S |

J @AU sTS cJoS ~a TSq ~cw ~a, ~T Q OTl@p Acm ɰSR s ~a | A@ا gc c @S jTS U | cf^S ASBq A@ OSAS ? c ?

TkU @v U ~T r @S STf ewf@ gcAO^ wfA e@US AcSFm AF Sq | cf^S ewfBfcS sTS Aca @ d @ @@Av wS cq cAa | TSq AXB^UU ~sFw, ~U @@Av wS, BSf@^- cHf, @UFHf R ~g cAa J BfAc@U | AXB^UU wS ~ A wS ~Uɰgc cAa | ~U wfA @r J TpF | e@US TF AS, @H J UZ wS eZF Tn 208 ZAS | AXB^UU ~sFw 2Av Z wS R @Ac ATUATr ~a | BSf@^- cHf @UFHf ~g ATU j@ kH wfAe@US cAS | w j@ca ~w cTS UZ@ ɰS cAa AEOTc ceU ~@AT @ AXB^wfA Tw | AUf@بT @S TAw@ wfAe@US c AS | SBdU qUT wS SS AcSF q ceU ިm@@ cAa c @ @p ~˻ SBdU wfATw cU sc S | @H @شq BSS S SBdU wS Ai@ eZF @ة jce ~@ e@v U J ST ~SF UZ wS OU ~ɮa cAS, AU@ ~B ~Uɰ @ sc S | SBdU BfcS AaU OU R ~AcSFm jce ~@pAm |

jJ r cf^S ASB wS @ػ wgf F R gUcɮ | J AaU j@ pb TS ewiS jce ~Swf cp | T @q J UQF AaU AAv wS@ @ػ mAUA o Z, s J wS ~SF @ Zɰ@A S j s (s SBdU wfA cF@) jce wS R wS AcrS j@v ASA ~ ~Ag cFS v | J wS Ar\f mofS Sq, S@ةc ~Ao@ Sq | Ac sha cUfU Sq jc ~Agsw cAS ha^gc cUcl AaU jce c w@ wA@ J wS wqS S | AUf@بT J W̩ n-Ac@ػ AaU j@خT | AAS AUf@ AUZAaUS :

AT A@ cU OR s, ~T wS s sTS qha TSgc wqc ? ~AT ASB OS@ @T gc ZAcZ @ ~STA qAS | ... s ޮpA cA U@ ɩ OUc ~a j@ AST, s Sq BSF ~SF AST | ... ~T wS ~AT @T J@ AZAS s, v ~ gA R ~AT @p ic |

Tf S ~crF Ai@ F A cAI AaS jce ew Acm @r @ BASaS j@Tn B@بT TA\U@@ @S ~ɩ @H ~^ ASAv wS mofS AAaUS cf^S jce j@Av @Ac (AS rK WT r) @ OUAhOn wq A ~A @S AS | sq@ BfAc@U cf^S wS oS R OUS @ػ ~S@ Ac T^cF J@ rS a | ~S TS Z AAS @S @S ~SBS @a TI TI cFR @S | Tf S TSq j@ cS aaS S cf OS @ |

jq T J wS AcdXo TUOS @ش @ش J@ ~Wɩ @S f fS AZ | ~Wɩ AAS Sfcq wH @S, A ~Wɩ A J@ AZAS | J ~oH TAB dAO co | T j@AS ~T@ cUAaUS, XبU ~ BJqبU US OU S | v kH q ABAS | XبU c, BJqبU av | jq c XبU M^s c c H ~Ao@f S R av BJqبU ~S w^ c@ AS ~S @بT M^s ~AS Ac@Ar | ~T wS@ ~AT TS @A jq av BJqبU |

jZS ~T cI AS A j@BS s˻ Ar\f ~AgTS ~ F@ | ~cc cF jce wS@MrU @̰AScU wS AAS OS @ OS AS | A@ا J wS ~SSF cI cf^S BAS AaS : q M^s o OZ ~SF j@ pA AS OS ~SF j@ mr |

Tf S- cq @ SS F AcO @U cI s s i@ب Ac @Uq J wS ~SSF R mgcmɩ^F cI AaUS | Aީ c^S, ~wB BFAA^S, gAwSf U, gqAI qA^, Mn AS^S R MTF^S @Uq AaUS wS g R O@ | c jJ rAr wwS-T-~cS TIA @ c j@v @ش cUS S | Tf S- cq @ ~ j@ ecɰ i@ gU Uw | Tv U 1904 | i@بcA wwS^S caU w^S Ac UQF Zc oToT BJ@BT@ AaU | w cAF ASAv U, b@bU R Sq - q ZS@ @U@ɩ ީAwB c Uc- U cF Av ~BS U | ~AgScL jvq s wwS^S Uc c@ @ cUUS cF Aci@ب wS cB c | cFv Uc U Q ~gAc R ~BS | Uc cUUS, ~T wS cT SvrS @ | ~T cUcɰ@, OUcɰ@, FS cɰ@ jTS@f Z̩Ucɰ@, Tcɰ@ s^ SvrS TS Z cBS cAB s |

jc PA U q SvrS | wwS ~So J Ac@@ cAS AUS Av wS SvrS | wS Av U r^ R fS jce rA^ @ cAKH | A@ا o SvrS cS | SS s^ cBc q TɻSqB @ @ | Ac@@ @بT q TɻSqB @BAv @ AUS gqAI qA^ | cr @AS T Ac AS sZS AcAr s^ Aci@ب wS cB iU ZS Fl@بT i@ب, @Uf@pG i@ب, sf^TS i@ب R Mf^TS i@ب A@ R g^ c@ | Ԯ@Uq cIUS j wwSq @fA | jq TIA Fv@ب ^ |

TS Z c 1904 U cf^S wS TB OAU c OA̩ AaU S | q F UQHf s 43 ca cݮf cf^S ASB J wS mAUA @ ~wf AaUS | jq TS , ި ewfBfcSq cf^S ASB wS mAUA @ l AaU S | q sZS sZS sTS sTS J TS wS OS ~S ja @ R wU wU ASa q @ɴ@ S @ɴ@ A mAUA @A AS ~gFm AaUS AAS, Ac@\ Ac ~^ @S j@BS@ wSAv ArAZ AS | J ASB @ j@AvTn mAUA R wa | J gqAI qA^ @a cAS wAha AaU | wSAv U j A@ F @AU F, s A @ @U@ɩ vS UZ, 28 vc 1897- j | J cݮ ZS 36 ca | qA^ BShaS :

~T Acrɮ, jqAvq J @ j@Tn mAUA | ... @U@ɩ cɮ@U ~T J@ @ZS mAUA @ ZAa cU TS S | rA^AS@ةS ~AocɮfR co j c^ ~S QFq cS |

jq AcrK mAUA @UASr @ SAS qA^ A@ا \UZ @aS :

~oAS@ mAUAwH Z @M@ co @cS s, @Acd TTAU ~@ TAn@ mAUA e@ة kH TS OUS AS | Av J mgcAXo m@fݩcr:, ~c ZS ~@ TAn@ XoA Prrc ~cm AaU cU, @ jZS ASH @ r |
~ j@Av UQF @c AcK jq s, wS @AU mAUA s Z s, TA ~cm @ة@v cU AwAaU |

cf^S wS rNw AcS c ATBS cFAv cr @MkU@ | Tf S j cF wgf TSm AO ZaS | J wcKH @ ~T BS A s, ~AT Z cU Z OAaS wSAv cr FT | @H jq @AU A ~̯ ha jTS j@Av wS @R Sq ~O wSAv rS AUAZ \UZ ~a | jq kn Tf AXo^, j@Av @fS wS ~a "~AT e TS AAaS", j AXf OH U "~AT Z cU Z OAaS"| TS jQn AXf OH T OH Ac j wa @ mpA |

Tf S J Bw F^Sf OZ wgf BSf SATU Y wSAv OSw AcAOn pAAn Xop @aS ~ATg OMof j@ UZ @ | ~ATg q F ew @aS TBT ިA @ | q kn Z sha wS ~Sc̩ @v@بAv @aS cf^S | rKTK wgf BSf ~er sZS AUZaS ~wq wS cf ~er UZ AwAaU | Tf ewf c^ OS cUq T^cF @ aS - jqgc f ~gw ~w AUZ ~mf ~^ OS @ p^ ~ ~a A@S BS Sq | A rFTUWS SfU wwS wS AAS gA OTl@ j@ Fɩ@ T^cF @aS | jq wSAv rN AcS R @v@بAv c H Xop @ Tf cUaS : @ cU T cUR cc a ASEOq, A@a A@a ~gɮ ~T jq c @ASf @S @SAv ToF q | A@ا c T s @v@بAv cf^S @S AU c @S Sq |







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cf^S J wS @fgc w @S, ToF @v@بAv c cU ~crK ~T OS Av @TS @ mf ީ @ AAS BSSAS, @ش UZSR AS | ~@v r ~S@ TS Bw s, sZS j@c j@ AAS r c Acr wS PA @aS ZS mAUA @ @ Z ? Bcc R s S | j r AiAAi i ~ ~@ r s, AFq A@ AAS ASB @ ASBq TS Z S S ? Tf S- cq @ jq AXf rAv s c Bcc q m Acof | ~wq ~T \UZ @Aa 1886 U UZ wS ~^BS ~U 1922 U j@ j@ cc wqaS cf^S ASrf ~^@, ~LcS ~SɰS BSF | Z sha wSAv J ~AS R cr TS AaU | 1909 U AO ~ɮSU TAv wSAv cf^S ޡrT B^AS (1911) rA^AS@ةS ASB wqUS jTS cHS Tf Xop @aS fcf mpA @ | j@q wS 1914 U w BPS@ cCAU BB c ~So AAS vAcU TAST sw waS | jq Bɩf Av F AcrS @ Tf Zc ew gc T^cF @aS :

cf^S SS mS cUaS jce AUZaS, AAS ASB TS @ Z S S, A @ɴ@ ArAZ S AU gU sS ; A@ا SSBS mpA@ ~T cec Z q, OS R c cca AAS ~SdXo wS w rShaS ; sTS jq wSAv ( ~ɮSU) wR AXf WvSAv WvAaU wSAv OS JO ca - j O ~S@ cAr ca cFcoSR AAS mAO wS w ASaS, jTS p^ ~B R sc | e TS Z S- cU AAS Ai@ @f cU OaS v ~T m @ cIc O @ @ |

~crF gU sc WvS jce F F A TZQ cp^R ~T A jce wS AaS cf^S cq @ | sTS o s@, BfcS sZS @ s wSAv | j OS@U 11 jAU 1910 rA^AS@ةS | 1911 U TWlc BɦɮJ@ cA ~Os @B @AaUS cf^S | f cf ިHFmpA cq @ Z sha :

r UqS wS wA cf^S rK @AUS | wSAU sAR ~S@ ST@ Rmɰ wAUS, c AS A@a gU UAwU S | cf^S AaS AA ~S@c wS R U eroS @A AUS, R Aco S AZ ASBq w@ wS oA AUS | "BfcS sZS @ s @dHo j" jq wSAv T ASUT qAS |

jTS s AvAvA wS R p wS A@ا TS AaU S | H U ~SF j@ WvS | 1911 U ~S@ ca 1932 U 20 vc @ TL w^f ~SrS @AaUS BrA AcdXo | 26 vc w^f ~SrS g @S cf^S @xi jq wSAv S S | cf^S ASBq AUZ waS :

... crS c sS U | ... Tc [rq] cUUS, "BfcS sZS @ s" wfɵAU jq wSAv TLAB A | gU AwAaUT | ZS@ T A wq U | ...
gU sc cF j HAvR cr AA@ | 1923 U 10 vc ɩ S @بT (ɩ) Tn 36 ca c | cf^g jq AgcS ~ɮ^ TpF ~w J rsF r Aw JS cf^S | ɩ- ~So cf^S J@ w rSS ~a :Z ~a TpF (OS 1903) wSAv - Acr ca cFcoS gU sS AS AAS | j wSAv AS U AcA | rS s@ FQذrf rgS @ BcSf :

WvSOn ~T @@BS ZS Amϩ AaUT | ɩɰ cf^S@ ~So @US J@ j@v wS rS | wSvR ASr @ AUS | wfAU- ԰:Z j S, Z S w, wgf rA^ j s | cr TS cf^S ZAS@QH O @ qUS | wSv rSUS | BSUT s Rq @AcAv SA@ ZS R AaU S, cf^S ZS cq A AaUS | ZS U Sc T @ش AaUS S cUq c Av U wa |

Tf S jq Zc BASaS A@ا WvS AZAv BSS AS | c BASaS ԰:Z j S, Z S w wSAv OS@U 16 ~ArS 1321 | A@ا r U wfAU- ~^w jq OS A@ R @S wfA AaU S ? U @بT S OqUS @S ?

~T ~S^S @ ~SF A@a F Aa, s ʩ \UZ @ AO | Z sha J A ~Swf ɩ@ Z c wS rS cf^S ~wR jaS | @بT gq A^A@r AUZaS 16 TO 1923 U j@ AccH sZS BS sha cf^S ɩ@ rShaS j@AS ^FcU ~T @U Z f BU wSAv | j rAr R s ~@v AcmA̩ cHS @بT Z۩ cS TofU UZ @ | ~a :

29 ~wmv 1923 | ~cm nTr Z q UAwU | AS Accc ɰ@ AZ ~AAaUS | ɰ J@ AZ ~F^ ~SA^ qUS jce J wS AS OAUS | Accc ɰ r» cA ɰ s @U wS AS OAUS, q @U wS wA UAwUS | wS wS OAUU | @U ^ q wS AS UAwU | ZS ɰ r^ TZZAS AZ TS qAaU s AAS T rA^ Ug @AaS | j@Av AcrK wS @U@ ~F^ AcAm @AAaU | Av jq : ԰:Z j S, Z S w, wgf rA^ j s |

Av Fknq R sha AcG c A Ԯ@بT Ar\ R AF cq | j c F sS ~T AcAm OS @a cɩɻ ~S s @Ac TS mpA-AcmpA @ة AcAOn c ~ɮ | AAS ASB TI TI rA^c c PrUB̵S @a ASB wS S OqS | @f wS c @S wS BS OqU cUS SS wS | J@ wq cUU cq wqS T BfcS c ިS wS | c wS @ R SA@ J ~Lm AaU jce SS wSAU ̮T J TS @ة S | cR c |

c Tf S AcAr ecɰ @ BS sha j@Av AcrK wS @ػ cf^S AcrK ASr AaU v sS J TpF cf T wR , wSAv sS @ɴ@ rZSR S | wSAv : ԮTZ rA^ c / gɮR Hf @Ho | J TpF Wv 1941 U ~wmv ~ j wSAv UZS 1939 U 3 Ac | UZ FQ BS AaU Ԧ@W Sv@ wSAv cFc @ | Sv@ T A@ا rKs^ ~AgS S | Sv@ ~TU TpF Ar i@بɻ wqc @ AaU | wSAv sZS rKs^ @B UwU S ZS jAv@ J ^ cf wS Ac wqc qha @r R AcSA BASAaUS | jq qha j@Ao@ F ~a |

(1) gɩ@بT TZoF cS : S s @Ac ~Ag @r @S s, wSAv J Fw kc sS OA̩ S ; J rXocɮ q T oH TQ wf |

(2) f^S i@ب ~@v cɦA F BAw UZS : wSAv J ^ wf , kBSf Aީpc jq ~Ag @r @AAaUS | S q J U@ sn (22r rcH 1348) ^F rA^AS@ةS TA^ R 32r rcH rXocɮ rA^AS@ةS wf |

(3) rA^c WK gKF : 1346 U AAS j@c AS-O Tɮ o jq Sv@ T AAaUS, q T ~oS AcZFɩ ԮTZ rA^c wSAv AO | q T j@AS cUAaUS s, J TpF ~ cAr A Sq, jAv sAR ~TU TpF wS A@ا j wSAv J TpFR ~T @B Uw c |

(4) wSAv @ػ cO kHɻ R FQ F BS s PrUB̵S TBT UZ cq sn ~S^wS @ | J mpAOH q : wSAv dc ASB T T i@ب̰ gkAT@ ~TU ~A^TrsF Ar c w rSS | ..."TZ rA^c" jq wSAv OS @ dc ~T@ ި j@v T @ AiAaUS | oH j@T T wS rZc BSF @ZSR @S S | ~AT wSAv sfA wU U AS sZS mAUA @ AS OU ~ɮAa, ZS AaS @ @ dc oFSwf pA A@ cUUS - ~B ~AT s FQ @UT q jZS AUZ Z wUT, A@ا j wSAv ~T ~SFSF wS T AT @ɴ@ ArAZR S | ~T sZS c sc ZS j wSAv @ AR | A@ا ZS AT ~T@ @a c S | ~SF wS T j wSAv AT ~ @ɴ@ ~w ArAZR S | ... wSAv ~AT O A wS Z AAaUT | Tc @UT dc TpFecɰ | AS TA^ s ɮS AaU jq wSAv OZ BU Tc @xi @ | wS U AaUS q^UZ WK, ~TU c, @AH@ c^FoF ~ ~AT |

~ɮ^ TpF ~Sgc ec g jTS j@ ~SWɩ wS T AcAr U rA^AS@ةS ɮS W jce rAS ZS@ rXocɮ | A@ا rA^AS@ةS A̮ cq cpl s cf cf^gTUf J wfSwf J s wSAv rSS wU S | c jTS ~Q @ PrUB̵S mc AUS @Av wTS @ɲAS@ jq AcrK lskH wSAv @ئ @ | J mcT jqO. jT. Ag- wSAv @ئ @S @S@ ɮ | AS @ئ wSAv @S PrU cf | Qnq ~SA@بT Am AOUS @ئ | ~ PrUB̵S AOUS A^mS ATAB@FU ɦv @ @S ~AT i@ب | UQHf s, ASAv @ئq Sf@xi | 1941 U ceU ASgswF ިdK@xi S AS ~SA@بT R PrUB̵S A@ا AwAaUS ASAv AScA Sf ~rT @xi | TpFecɰ rA^AS@ةS MJac q ^F ɮS sZS T wR U TZ rA^c T ZSR s^ ~-wf cf^ewf ZS PrUB̵S Tm wAaUS AS Sf - q^UZ, ~TU R ca T |







|| 4 ||

cUcUF j @ j ~Sި ~T ~S@q BS AaU S, Tf S cq BS wU q cqAv @a ~ UZ@ @a cCAU H @S rK Sq | @S AAK@ Ug, srZFA ~@ c ASB AЩF BS Tf j cq OS @S AS | j Hw l dc A gUcɮ, J wS@ AOS AOS BfcS@ gA Sc ASBm \, ~SF@ BSS s gU ~T UwAaU q @q | ~EOs j@ ~UMA@@ A@^ BfcSw sS AAS wJ waS F PScFA@ة ~ɦU TAT TS ~prF | J Acrɮ AaU :

AAv Fq j@Av AcrK ls ~a, Av wS rS T ~T @B Uw, ~T rS ~Agک@ Xo @ U | ... J Tm wS OS AaS j@Av ~A˻c fA O ~T ~Sgc @A, TSKAv@ ~OS cU TS | ... j@v sS g gR @ @, jq TSKAv Ao@ j@Av ~cT gerR cCAU Ac ~T Ag cA ja cU - ~T@ SS @ gc , ~AT A@ jq Ao@ swF ?

B @a@Aa eZF wS AUZaS AsAS j@ ger ~ɻl Tn ASr @a@Aa wS ~^TU ~UA@ة @ Tf s cf^@ɤAU ^OS @aS UQ @ Aw ~T TS j@v Z Bw iU | TS ަU ^ @cf, ̰ɮ, Tfcq, @T c rc o S, ToFsw c wfA@ wS ިJA cJo ~cm R sAS, @H c AaU cOAS@ OS - g ̲ @xi @ @xi @S sw @ @S sw, A^Ψ, @S cS, U@U TofcKH Wva, A@ا @ش @SAS BS AS ~^TU Ar, pBScS c ~S^ l | Zc TS Z , sZS gAc, T ~TAUS wS mHrF o wS ̲ cJO ~a jAS, OS ̲ c pBS ~^U ~T gY @S mAUA Sq | J wS J ~LAc@r nTɫH mAU o Za A@ا OSnT BASS cU ~T o A S w kn - c wS l, c^r c UQF ZJB ~B ~Uf@ m | ~k @S ? 1890 U cS Wva UUS r A@ | U@ݩ BfcS F^ wT ccɮ@f jq wfA@ J ~cU @AiS ~cH g @ jq c o AaS ~T Ar TB TH ToFT | R wa UUS wS Zɩ (~crF ArKF mQ) jce wSfA oJO - ~ZBfcf @xim | A@ا J wS OS l c mS@U, O R AAn Zc @q TS TU S |

A@ @ cf^S gwFcS s J@ AW ~BfcS AaU ASgswF c g c ~Swf cp | J j@c AW @ @a@Aa A^oF cf^ewf mبvS sS @S ~UMA@@ خU T, s S̩f rɩ R gɽ j@q AAXo T A A a | ZS @U iJq a - av j f cU @ɴ@ Z sR AS | qc AcU MgwF snf OS R BSS F AcSF Tf S g AaS ިdK | cI wa j@Tn wS m:mk cf^S cO ~SUe@p ~ ~SwAU | ~SF kn Aa, ~rAT@ AQATS S j@c w@ ~r@ةd c^FoF@ cUAaUS :

T w@q O @U cf^S s˻ AO | J @cFq cU ~ Sv@q cU, c ~SF s @S wFOSq cU, cA@a ToF Aq QH QH Zc J q A BNc JA@ Ta | AAS s cf^S j @ AAS gU S S | A@ا J wS OS T, ~AT @a @ ZAa - J ~L OS kH AcU , ZAS Z ީT AF@ cf^S@ - sS j@c ZU aɦS SFev TSK |

jq T^cFAv Tf S- OZ AS c J cq- wS ToF ~L c wS wq ~Lm cf^S ~S@ Acw AAS AaS i@ | sTS o s@ S^UU c mf of c mpA @ BShaS :

j@ BFlm an dc SkS UZ OJ A cJo gCa wq wq SU ɦ A OUa @R j@v gU a c wUTU a, cf^S AU @ T@xi d @US wSAv | Tm ~rT aA ަU wTwT @ | rA^AS@ةS Tm ~@rcɩɮ sS w iU ATAU | s sZS AaU mS T ASEOU JA qU | j@Av TSK @xim g wU Tm ~rT |... gwF aU j@v gU @ UAaU, q j BFlm dc ~kc @xim rS MgwF U |

jq cHS j@q T r^ ASA rA^AS@ةS, BFlm ~U, ~LAcU w@ cf^S A@fH @xioAS ~ ^Z rɩ fS بv ia | j@@f w@ S wS |

jq oS v@ v@ SS cp^ ަ ަ, BS BS, jAw OU ~T wS cf^S@ ZJB SR | s-ިdKAv ~^@ ~ɩ ~@r A@ O O j@U wS @ OUS, wT A^ ~ : wfyT @ @ AS S wS AUZ AUZ, O I ^A˩ @pA@ة ToF Z S dcr ^ ~Acgɻc@ | Acof jq cf^S ~ J pA AcAOn ~T ްOH @ sw @ AaS Tf S, BSF i@ R rɩ թq @pک J F | gC AaS AAS ~T ~S@ gU oH | sTS o s@ sg | c TSK jTS Acrɮ s, cf^S wS BfcS w Ri SF sg ArQH wS Zc c gkAT@ ASa | j cF BS Aa :

r^@بT U i@بcA Ac Zɩ @ TH Xo @ AZ AaS (AcBfcSf 1, p. 216) 1282 cN PBF @ gɰ ~ɻl Tɮ O@ cAr sg i@بcA AaUS cU TS @ TrA@U | TFS @ c^S i@ب cݮF rf@xi Ae cFc @ ~o J@ i@ب cA @ Ac @ R |

j cq ~R s BS A ~T U @S AcdXo Acr A@ oS OɡUF ToFR cf^S wS AUZ S | sTS j@v STS ZAa sA cH @ c wAc S wS | 1897 U 24 vc @Ac sAhaUS OUSAcU R A cv O | OA@ T I U BUɩ, A@ا ToF AAS OS @US sA cH @ c wAc S | wS ШAUA UZ AaU OUSAcU | AS AS c @ I ha | cv vUTU | A@ا wS cHf c ~Aa^ U @S@T cKɻ ~SK Sq | TS cI AS c jq LL s ~TSF ewf OAݩ ~^U@ @S gcq cAUɻ@ OɡUF mr ީS - jvq T |

j T jTS ~LASAc wS OS cO Tɡ@ AccH a T gcSBɦ ~ɮSZAS wSAv | UZ@ BShaS :

1916 U cf^S BAS BB ɮT̨- @ BS ~TA@ sn @S, AaUS ~F^B, AɮS R dH an T@بU | Aި a e@e sc OfS w BB @ I ToF AaU j@AS n |

cFAv cFZF @ Tf cIS :
sZS ~T BS A, OfS T ToFn ge@ vqبS vUTU BB, sZS @FvS @ ~̯ @ Tm SAc@ J J O TA Acs i@ha, q Tk j@BS @Ac, J cݮ a^, q Tɰsɻw Z Z BB @ JA @ R j@خ OS @ wqaS, "T gcSBɦ ~ɮSZAS - ~T YTI AcaR ~AS -" ZS, wSAv ~w rc rS @UR, ~T c@ ToF dd @ Ri |...@S TTSK Q Rq Tk Rq Bw JA Rq wSAv OS @ s c, ~T jq @ASfAv rSc ~w s^ @\S @AAS |

~ɮU ~QبNo r^ Y cf^S @ ~T @ةgcq BSAa A@ا J m oS cTZf R rZAݩ Acm TIZS @ s @TS @ UA@ @ة wfT j@ m gT s @cU pA rU U AcBS @̩ F ~T jZSR ިިA BASAS | 1914 U 12 ~vc w AwAaUS AAS | @S A@a cFcmS AaU S | FQذrf AUZaS :

@Ac Tm AS mS AS, M sɩ R AcA J O ~F^ S R wf ia | AAS mvrS j@o @ ~ j@o s^ vT OA @ c UwUS | ... ~T@ AS@v Z cUUS - BfcS :Z R @ ~a |

^ @ɩ Ac̽ @Ac A@ا ASZAS wS AUZAaUS | j@Av RAvedT c, ~SFAv UA@ O, rKAv vS @ ST | wSAU : ^ AT ^BS Z , ԮZ TI T ZAa, R Rw A, SAT c̲c | jc BS @f ~ gcc ~T ! S S TS c jc wS @S QH@U a^ Sq, ~a AcrBfcS AOAO - s cTS R wAw mha | BfcS jAw sc, rɩ cUc | ~T wS ~T o Oqc ~T ~Am ~wgf A@AOfS @Aީ SwA@ BfcS@ | wS U SpFAcQ T ic TFUU | A@ا ZSR TS @c @cU wS wS wJ cf^S Z waS SS cf^S j@ZS TU |


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