cf^S avw\ : OUAhOn FABl R S Ae

AT Oncf

 


AF gK ~ OUAhOn gK ~Uɰ - jq AXo^ sAR @Sq er Sq, c j-AcK ~T pA@H ~T ~wq m @ AS Oq | @cUq ~Uɰ cUU co kH Ai@ cUR S |

AF gK-ToFT Ar\ jce s-@S rA-Ar\ Tq ~cmS R Acm T A̮ | OUAhOn ATr ToFT Ar\ | jZS oAS, gK, prF e jce wA ecS j@n cFcY | OUAhOn ~cmS q j@q T jce PAr@ة Acm | mޮ ~ vqT Av Aq j@q pA Z ha OUAhOn@@ | j@c T sw OUAhOn FABl cUAaUS - "UAT U jq vS aAc AaU Sv@ R @ASf AccAB oH PSA^S WvS ATU | j A@a q nT aAc w\ cU d jce jq w\ cU @q AST gK j@v AcAr O AS d @ |" (AcK OUAhOn, @U@ɩ, ~S^, AXf TH, 1976, p. 2)

ASTR w\ cU cFv s dLkH -- A@ا FABl Aq ~T cI A | Zc ~oAS@ ASTR, @S-S-@S gc j@Av w\ Z o Z | sZSq OUAhOn j sha j@Av @ASf -- ZSq j sha T A̮ Acm | @S @S AST ~oWxvq rK sha | @S AST BSF Uwa q @ AS Wxv | @S OUAhOn ~c O-JO Wxv @T s˻ cFA ha S | T A̮ dLv jq cI s |

gK-Ar\R A@ا ~a PAr@ A̮ cFc | UZ@ sZSq @S prF c cm cHS @S ZSq q prF@ AcSFm @ mAS@ة v | sAR q mAS@ة i@@ TS TSq Z | FQ prF S, prF ~Agک mpA sF | q Zv A@ا ~cArF@ | r c^FoF JAUcJ@ qA@ i @ @TS @ c q @ ~cmU, q ~oO^@pA gkAT, q cJrcS, q AU SfAv@ S Z ? @U@بUM ަ wU q ~HF, q T q ErS, q cA w- -- Zq c |

~T s cU OqAa jq -- AF ~ OUAhOn ToF ToFT R w ˻@Fvq rK @ S, ɰprF BwR A@a A@a ~a | c@ sw OUAhOn gK R Zcq ASgrfU | FABl j@Av c^ cUaS -- "AOnAOU@ F AcrS s@T ~a, ToF cUT U @ | prF c oAS sF @B S Uq AOnSvF@ AOU@ @ ~r wH @S |... rATS AOU@ oS wH U c@F sF S ASR prF@ cCT @ U |" (ACS aAc, AcK OUAhOn, kcɻ emH, p. 75) | jq @ R A@ا TS , OUAhOn gK-w @MrU@ ԰cUT cUv A@a ~@ػ A | OUAhOn ^ eU ASTɻH @d@pAq j@Av A@ | j@^ SO S R @@ ^ @ AB R p^ ~T FABl OUAhOn-ASTɻHR Aa | @بT ިn AcrKgcq c@@بrU AaUS jce gK ToF U@S SSS TB@ c @ ~SS J w\ -- AcrK w^-w\ | TAS OUAhOnR | jTSA@ @ZS @ZS OUAhOn J gK w@ j@^ BdA (erSU) cU TS S, ~Ue@HTkU@ (@Avg) cUR TS | rZ rZ OUAhOn ve vqv ZU mHf | sTS OdU OUAhOn Od R ~TU @@S ToF c-j ~Sɮ OT@S rN-AcSFɮ ~TU - ~w coTS, Ac, AcU, cFAmv... cF@ v cU - c c cU - cS v cAT - cc cATO^ |

Od - ~ cMiS ? Acrf ? c... Od ASB@ TU S |" (AOnSvF OdU FABl , jQH, ~vc, 1982)

cf^S w\ j oS @S cwAcSFɮ ~T q S | @-@ OUAhOn cUT ɰS cU TS @U W cq- T jv gK ~ gK-ASg SFɮ OUAhOn ASTɻH BSF AScɻOS @S A@ FABl ? @ة ~B @ g OUAhOn ! @ة cAr gK-ASg !

cR OUAhOn s oS prF AmبAv, ~ AF cOS - @Bq g ToF ToFT, PrUf ~ ww ˻@F ~aq | ~T @cU jqv@بq cU Oq - ˻@F U ASAra S, sɩ m ZU ~a ~S@ |

~ɮAa ~ j@Av | c Ar\ ASTɻHq j@Av ~Ag @, sAR j@q ~Ag @ S | j@q ToFT ASAT Av Ar\ ToF ~Agw Ag^ @ | sTS @U@بU ~ ~S^Ti-j cUc @Av kH ~Uɰ | ~c ~r@ d sZS j@Av fc c^ AUZ (Ar\f mofS, AO, r̰f 1371 ; vc-~vc 1964) ~Agsw @AaUS s, FABl cf^S SSf w\ TkU ~Ag @ AcAha^ waS OdU OUAhOn ; ZS FABl cc cI OAaUS s w\ jce ~UOF OUAhOn - Av Ar\@Tq prF ~Uɰ UR Avq fT ~ɻl ~Ag ~-p@ | FABl AUZAaUS "aUTSAK @\S Bwl @ b cmc Bw ST ja BSq | jvq c @ | jvq SSf fT | ~T T OdU j-fT ~vv a |" (OdU , AcK OUAhOn, kcɻ emH, p. 59) | AF R OUAhOn ToFT ~Uɰ, eR p@ - cR ~Agw ɰprF @q cUaS FABl |

jZS ~T j@Av r TZTAZ c | @S AcAr AAF@ AAO j@Av gK-Ar\ ~cUcS @ sZS @S OUAhOn ASAT c ZS sA Av Ar\@T ~Ag ~Uɰ s, OUAhOn gK ~Uɰ jq q A q AcS, q ATAv@ O ~T A@ T˻S @c ?

j@ Ar\f cf^S | ~ Ar\f FABl | BSq ~a p@ R ASBm BfcS-UANo | BfcS-UANo ASBm @ BSF Zc AgcS TSK c BS S | ~T T oH TSKR F@q BfcS UANo ASBm | j@BS ~Agک R ~SgkA ~ j@BS TS ToF @A cr @ S @ZS | s-@S AF@pA ~cUcS @ AAv i@ ASBm i@pA w US - jq TAv jZS cmf@p | @S BS i@ i@pA kH j@@T S | AF iSR j@ m^ pA i@ A@ @ | jq Ac TS Sc , j@Av AF ~cUcS @ OUAhOn-ASTɻR j@Av ASBm Ar\@pA w UcS J ASTɻH | j cF Zc cAr ~A ~T @ A S | cR ~A Ri | @ش-S-@ش ~A US | R j@v @H ~a |

@S i@ c SvF@ c OUAhOn@ sZS j@Av AF-c^ ~cUcS @ ASBm i@pA w ScS ZSR A@ا q ASBm cFZF-ecAU ewiSAv J@ U ~S c UZ@ eAv ~gF^ @q, @ ~mf@ @ S | sZS ~mf@p ha ZS sMA@ة A @ɻf c S A@aq | j@Av @M@-̮ w\ ~T p^ cFc @ A |

TO^ cSc ~r R U T sZS cS wUS ZS g̩ r@ɩ AaUS | BF gɩ A rXo cF @c BSF AAS ASB B-AeɮS S c T ɰ@ AS j mS @AaUS AeɮS jce ASB AeɮS ްU c c\@U oH @ BF AOUS @AaUS OM ca - jTSq @A˩ ~a TH | A@ا jq AccH @ j@ i@ MJaAaUS Ag^ j@ cFZF | AAS cUAaUS - g̩ s T j ~Swf @S @p TH Sq TH-@ASf |

g̩ AeɮS jce BF ~Ao@ Fw @S AS | OM ca o BF B q AaUS | TO^@ cSc sR @ Ac̩ @SAS AAS | ̧ J ɰ@Av AS jAaUS -c cS T s @Jv v @vR gw @S - BSFq | w\Av TkU ̮ @M@ | A@ا i@ jq cFZF J ASBm UR TH WvS-o@ sA c\TfA@ ASBm @S R cFZF @ AcAha^ @ SR s, U jTS j@Av AXo^ i@ MJaR S | QnR, g̩ s T ɰ@ O jSAaUS - @Ac jq WvS, - jq ASTɻH @ AcOF c J @S Sq | ASBm cFZF i@ A S, A@ا @cF-@ASf ASB XgcS @ S S |

jq w\Av i@ WvS XgcS @S AS A@ا J cFZF TH-@ASf ̲w ~Ag AcA wa | j@BS OUAhOn-ASTɻ UZ@-AO TkU @ASf @ ~ɮ S Av Qnq | WvS R prF XgcS Qn jce ~AgR AcS | Ac@ػv jZSq, j@BS c AAF@ pA s TT@, OUAhOn@ J ASBm ASTɻH sA UZ@ q pA@ ~cUcS @S U q TT@Av AcA @c ~Ao@ J ~a A@S | A@ec ~Ao@ r sA SR U , q AcS OUAhOnAv TkU @ASfAv O gU a A@S - jq Ac@ػ jQn @cq |

jc ~T A@a p^ \UZ ~ɮc | fTcXo @c cf^S avw\ jce FABl R S Ae ASAT OUAhOn- Qn | ʩ ~SF -j@Av OUAhOn @R j sc |

w\ @ OUAhOn -jq An Qn @@Av AAmA Xgc :

1. jTS s, UZ@ s ~Ag, OUAhOnAvR q j@q ~Ag cF @aS AOU@ jce OUAhOn ASTɻH QnR q j@q prFcUf jce WvSo @ASf Tq ~SH @aS Acrmgc | OUAhOn@ ASBm XgcS Zcq @T | ~c A@aq Sq | j oS ASrS gU OUAhOn AcrK Z s S | kH^ nf ASAT mf n@ A@av j Bɩf p^ cU OU | OUAhOnAv VFr cF@-j mAީ | cf^S w\AvR q | kH^ nf A@a A@a prF esBS @AaUS | j@ gpF ~A eAQ j@ gkAT@ d ~ScF ~AgS R eU-hOH s @S r@ mpA ~Q @c T | Ac^ wU mTf@R prF-A@\S H j@Av AcAr OAn AAaUS AAS | sAR jq OAnAv A@\S AL@ Wv@ ASAT ~sA^@ OUAhOnAv -j@Av prF mpA cFcY AaU cU TS | kH^ nf mf n OUAhOn cf^S AO TkU w\ ~Ag ~SF AS jv@بR | w\ ~SHR TS A@a AS | ~O OUAhOnAv s ecf AaU | ~B @ AOAU TUFS OUAhOnAv @R cU OU | cf^S avw\ Acrm ~SH AaU ZSR | ~c ~S@ T Acrmgc TkU w\ ~SH @ wUR OUAhOn TS gU S ~c Zcq oH TS | jTS p^ ceU OUAhOn Bw ~S@ ~a | rlO^ c av SFɮ @ j Bɩf ~A oH OUAhOn ASAT a |

2. w\ @ OUAhOn ASTɻH AXf AAmA jq s, UZ@ s cU OaS OUAhOn@R Tv q-q cU OaS | c cUc PrUf wa ~S@ZAS ~Uɰ | ZS ~S@ZAS XgcS ~a OUAhOn AOU@ | Ac@ػv cO cAr Ri jZSq | jq ~T cf^S SSf ~ FABl OdU @ػ j@v Acmp ~UOS @c | @H jq OUAhOnAv ~cUcS ~r@ d ~Agsw -"... s AAS (FABl ) SSf w\ v jce fT q-q cUaS ZS Tm WvS jce Tm eUR J ASB@q SS @ AUZ a" (AO, vc-~vc 1964) | ~O FABl cUaS s Av Ar\-eq ~-p@ fT ~vv a |

~T T ~SF j@Av w\ H Ac wH @c | cf^S mvTmv ~ FABl ASAT OUAhOn mvTmv - jq Av ToF TkU ccF TS @S ˻@F Sq | sAR Aa^Kf TUO@ cU S w\ ̩S O aAc ̩S cݮ @T ; w\ rK prF cKɻ AcmA̩ SfAv aAc Ar AS - qFA | A@ا cf^S w\ TkU @Av AaU - j@Av r aU wT j A@aq ASB TS@ c U S | wT j@Av cAU@ @ kH Y A wH @AaU, j@^ ~SBS cU ASg @AaU R | q TAv Y mvTmv sc@Av ~SgcR @AaU | j@Tn @q a s @ AaU | c OU AwAaU | ASB :Z ~U ASTAB AaU cAU@ ̩S | w\ jq TTcm FABl ASAT OUAhOnR ~AcA ~a | cm䨩, jq OUAhOnAvq FABl cɻAo@ cf^Sf cU TS | jZS FABl j@Av wU OAn XgcS @aS | B OU S, r@ ^ Tq | PA@ ~-^ | @ ZU g R mgAc@ sAR @pQ @ g @c A@a Sq | jq wU OAnAv@ FABl cFc @aS ~F^ @MrU | wT @pA-ASAc prF ToF jq wUAv@ ~ɩ pA @ب-rS jce AQ cU TS | A@ا FABl jq ^ ~AmL cFc @ wTAv mvTmv @p @ػ sS WAv @ AaS | r aU wT ja O@A AS | wT gU Uw S j@vR | sAR wT ~Aocɮf w\ @ ~ wS-cBS ~ɮ cA @ ~S @ ASq OAaU | cɻA AaU ̩S ASAc Y | LLR wT q sc@Av @a ~S AS | wT @a ~OS, ~-c^Ψ jce A@av gfA@ @ wa | wT jq wUAv sS q mvTmv wT @p @ػ AOnAv@ U o | @ wT @شq g S, @cU r @ ~ɮ mvTmvAv g | wT a sc j@A@ @ ̩S, ~SFA@ q ~Xg rS, ~AݰrS wU | r sc@Av ̩S@ a s A@av :Zco @AaU, A@ا wT a s @ AS | cf^S j@Tq AZaS, FABl R AZaS q | OUAhOn@ ~c@r Sq UZ@ T cFZF @ c | FABl R SwA@ sc@Av wT @p kL AcKAv gK AcrKH @ S AS | Bw J XgAc jq wU Tw UANoAv@ s˻gcq oH @a cU TS | TS Z c, mvTmv w\Av jq sc@q oS OAn | s SwA@, wT s @a, ̩S T @S @S Y @ LLR @pQ wUAv Tq ~mAm@ jce ~AAO | mvTmv w\ jq wU OAn FABl Ag ASTɻH |

SSf R OdU- ~UOS ~ɮ s@ | j@ co ~mf@ @ sc S s Av Ar\q ~A^T prF q Ar\f ~Ag j@q ~a | ˻@F Bw sA @R @ OAn-A@\S ASA | A@ا rK prF cf^S j@T AZaS s, mTf-mf @ػ mA@ ASg̩ TkU c^Skn Aa^ wUR BSq m BSF cSco @a jce @a ~ɮcR O @a | A@ا @a ~ɮc @ gcUR gkA R Od TS TUc ZJB ha S | jq UANo@ prF oc BSF FABl AZaS BS ɩ @a@Aa jAw jR ATU a S | jv Zcq ss a, cU s Zcq m | @ sS j@v kQ ~gcq ~a | scq OdU ZAa cq j-@Av ~T TS a | TS ATU c ~ATU cIc BSF Av ɩ j ATU sR ~c S-TU j sS j@v mkU dAO A@\S | j@ oS Acc ~T^n Z s j@ T - ZS S-Sf ATUS f@ ATAU aAc a R | TkU w\ ~A^T ~Ag j ss qU Ai@q A@ا OUAhOn prFAv s FABl Ag swf a - jTS @ZSq TS S |

R FABl q ~-ATAU AUZ AUS- SSf | gK R jq ~@ cU @S j@BS OUAhOn-ASTɻ ? SSf UZAv S@r R UvAe ^ @ @ a - q prF M^s A r@@ j@v ~@p @ O | FABl s AcS Bwl @ OUAhOn Bw jAaUS U sTS Ua J ASTɻH, AOl cUR @Av- jAv j@Av ASrS |

ʩ j@Av @, cf^S w\ SSf ST jce FABl OUAhOn TA-AUZS - Avq A@a er Bw | gkA ~ OdU Sf @SASq gc w RiAS | gkA j@T gc s Sf ~a A@ا T, gU gc | AXfݩ, ASB @TcFm ToF OdU PS:F m cIc QTR AaU S | cf^S j@Tq AUZaS | OdUR @SAS gkA TS cIc O @AS | jTSA@ sZS ~TU A TSgc gkA @a m wa ZS gkA cm S @ jce Acrɮ-S A̽ TZhaAc A@ OdU A@R ZAS | gkA W OdU Sf @SASq AaU S | OdU TS gkAR @SAS Sf w RiAS | s Sf Sq S c @TS @ ! ~Sɮ-Ie@p STAv S s ^ v sS s S | FABl jq STAv@, jq ST gK@ cɦcA @T oSF @S OUAhOn rK AUS Ai@ cI s S |

AAF@ A@A\ީ fT jce ~Ag ~Qبu Zq AgcS OUAhOn-ASTɻ TI TI jTS prF XgcS @ S sZS J ASBm Ag BU Ac@fH | -c prF ~T gU A S @SAS | jTS j@Av prF ~a S Ae AOAU @cAURU- | ZS Ar ATAS SO R wS j@Av v@ ~er ~a s k JA Za @cAURU jce m ~S^ ~ sha | w\ jq SO-wS AccH Sq | OUAhOn ~a cU w\ TkU gc, ̮ ccF A@aq AS WvAS | ~O aAcAv prF-M^s, rA-S^S, ɰFH jce Tos ca ~S@ZAS | OdU aAc TS j@Av mHf prF OdU ~ ɮ OZ A m Z | FABl j@Av cUFmpA@ OS @aS - ST sZS av AaUT | q cq ~a @@Av ިS cA cHS sAU cU@ c @ZS @ZS cɮ @aS FABl | -c cA @ة S@r-@ TI, UU-SfU @O cS BSU, OR c^ | TSq j@Av cA B بv TS WK @O oU cq prF Z ~@ ~ \vgc a U q @O | ~S@ fW wfyT-AX @OZ R g Ri OU^ -prFTU Z @AvAaUS cU@ FABl | OdU- ~ST T prFAv q mpA Ar@ئ @ i ja | jq prF j@q o a OdU AS:ʩ ~ B BfcS gw TS, ~SAcU @M@H - Tv U@Av@ cc Z TBv OZTZ بv Ri | ~c jq prFq cTS ~-ɮ A sZS s ~ޮpTS gkA@ Z @ - gkA of of cA OU s pA cp @ - ZS jq OUAhOn ~TW jABrS jq e@ة prFAv ASgUgc بv Ri |

OdU- ~ j@Av ~ prF OdU US U aAc | TkU w\ US U Sqq - jTSA@ USq @S \UZ Sq @R | A@ا OUAhOn US q S, AAv U ~w O ~ j@v JO i sR - q ~LAcrɮf ZAr BfcS - sS Od TS cJoSAU@, qSAAcrS@ ~UA۩, ~Uw ~ TQ @ Aha | j-prF gU s S B | w\ Od R ~TU TS PS@vF ja A-ZU ToF Aq | ZS cwS A@\S ~a | A@ا jq cwS US jTSgc Od U ~ c @ AZaS FABl- ZSq Od s ~TU@ -TS T޻H A@ jAw OUa kQgc A@ا cr fcgcq cI s |

~T US c Od eU S q - ̬ AU S ? @FT j Z ~TU@ | Tɰ c ~TU Zɩ A@a AUZa | mHTAЩ UZ UZ T cɰ wa ̬ | k @ q ~ ɮ A Od UQ @AaU UZ - jQH o | jq eU R prFAv r@ ~Sgc @S ~TU A Od TSsw ASAc۩ R ASAcĩ | ~TU j@v OA@ة ̬ cA | fQH @Jv T JAO @ ̬ | Od ~ ~TU @ػ wS Acް-e@ة | j@ ~ScF prF XgcS |

~TU @a Od -TS T޻H @ cUAaUT | cFv Zc coS r @Av waS cf^S | Sf R ިdK @ػ PA@ة A@Av gK @r @c cF J j@v AOcݨ AaU | SSf w\ Od j@@fL ^SfS A@Av j@cR \UAZq AS | gkA Od TS OA A A@av ɮfS Ai@q A@ا Od@ gUc | sq AUcU qSvU@OU ~ An@-wU @, rf mgAc@ OA gkA S @c @S @H Sq | @Bq jq A @S AS:^S cI s S | @U Ac Od c ^SfS @c @ S | @U TB AcKAv@ gU @ c cUR TS S | c cf^S w\ ^S A@ػ @S qAʩR @R Sq | OdU OUAhOn ~a - Zc kQ j@ IU@ - c ~a | q prFR q US c, ~-ɮ OdU@ AZ | OdU AOnSvF @ FABl AUZS Av@ Z s@ --

"Od S S @ @ of of US U | ~c ~ ɮ OZ Uw | ...Od pA r cA c^ Aw T s |

T @U j@Av chO | T @ U A ZUha |
chOAv AZU AZU @ |
prFAv A@aQH o s@, ~T Od TZ Z q | OZ pG OɴAS | US T wa, T wa SSASR |

Od of ~c ~ ɮ OZ Uw |
~TU TZ - Zc @a @ Z sha |
Od mNo | ~ ɮ OZ @ ST ~ɮa ~TU A TSgc UANo @ ASBq sS rAߩ |" (jQH, ~vc, 1982)

OUAhOn cFZF @c ~c@r S @UR AOnSvF FABl jZS j@v gKF-OS S @ SAS |

FABl mĩq jZS Od R ~TU TSA@ @ػ ToF, ~^ Od TS rfA@ @TS j@Av kn cr @A AaS - ^S-~@ R ~TU A fA sS d @a ATr s | OUAhOn ~TU c@ T Z OdU@ @J ZAa ~T | @S OdU ^S Sq - -r @S Bcc ~T q S cf^S w\ | FABl A@ jBSF gkA@q f @aS - ~A Tpgc ? jq c@FAcfS prFAv cf^S w\ R j@v esBS | c @^f fT @ Zc cAr ja- jTS cU s S | sAR TSq s, cf^S w\ Sq jTS j@ Ac^ ~SgkA jZS OUAhOnAv ATAr AaS FABl |

3. w\ @ OUAhOn c ~ j@Bɩf AcS ~T Z q | UZ@ OS ~S@ T j@@ ~Agݮ^ T @ S | TkU ~Ag ~rr @S @S ~oS ccF, r R @U AQةw @S fgc AW @ w\Av@ | w\ mɰ R cFS j@v m-T^Aݩ , j@v BAvU A@ا q PrA\@ BAvU of-^ i@ R r@@ p @ ~S@ cAr | w\ ~^w @T @S Ar»@ ~Ag@ jce ~ɩ ~oS cFS@ OUAhOn@, ASBm Ar\-e r TS, ~S@ cAr oSF A S | @ZS @ZS j U Zc gU jce ~fc lskH | j@A@ @ OdU- Ai@ q a |

jq @ASf WvS@U 1879-80 U | TAv TSF \UZ ~a cf^S w\ | gkA BSfA-OS R r A@ػ co, gkA cAAcr TfQH, An@ @ - jq c A@a@q j@v A \UZ @aS cf^S | A@ا FABl kH cBS @aS q Aɮ | AAS ~S@ cAr dL A mAީ @aS ASr r@ AXfo ArAQة cCAU TSgc AcArĩ |

ASr r@ cCAU - s AcAvr rɮS wHA^@ة ~m Z ~c Bɩf OS ~@R mA^ | gkA wf AmArfU BPSA@ AO^ R ~TU @xi hOA̩ ~S^Ti-j Ie@ oAS - T cCAU AXowm BPSA@ gcS بAv U jq prF | ~c cCAU ToFAc ZAЩ ~ɰr, AcUTZf TSgc - coTS, Ac, AcU, cFAmv- ~TU jq eU mبAv | qeUF AScɻOS FɦmvS AcB UQ gkA cA Av, q Av TTS A rXo ~ ASocc v A ~w j@ AS:r cF R - ~A sL Tmv prF ްɻ c@ بAvaS FABl | gkA ASyU BfcS sS j@ cFAw TSK ~^:rkSFq S - AcAvr rA g, ASr r@f cf ScBwHq j@ Ag aAc | s-BwH A̩U m AUr @ A@ا Ag cU, ~, ~kH | cf^S UZ A R ~kH, ~^:rkSF Aq qAʩ cF a | FABl @ cFA R wb۩ AaS |

kH Acf j@Av H ~T AZ S Ae @p ~AA w\ OUAhOn- | cf^S w\Av mĩq AnTAn@ | j@A@ ~a A@r ް- OAn-ASw ^먽, Sf-c T OAUG, R OɡUF, wS ~cr, ocTS ~r wArfU TA޻ j@ H | ~SFA@ ~a j@Av W w\ | rS, ~S cQ|H A@rAv@ BTɩ @ OS BAT | BAT T TS BSBAS U gq c:A^@U ڻݩ BAvU Ri | w\ jq Av A@ OTl@gc wAT prF, oAS R c@F AOnAݩ @aS S Ae | A@ا cf^S w\ ް @ػ ~ j@Av AR c c s a | cf^S cc AcrKgc cUaS - cQ|H | w\Av @ @@Av ~er Xo @Aa -

1. @JiAU BAT TAUUcc Ac r sAhaUS- "jTS T j@ cQ|H cU@ ~A ABɮ @AU..."
2. "wMcH aUAv@ c ^ AZ | ... ~Scp ZAS c@ cUFcAB, sS kcB^ ޮ-cU@ AaU jce ASTU ޮF gc rf q rfer cU ATH Q q j@Av AB cQ|HFrf Amبv q Aia |"
3. "TAB Pީ wa cQ AcUAc |"
4. "~^kHɻ (TAUUcc mf) T mq j cQ|H cU@@ W @, ~Lf ABS ecɰ ABɮ @A UAwUS..."
5. "jq ^ cQ|H cU@Av ~AF wH ͰɮfSF ~^kHɻ@ DKl f A UAwU |"
6. "cU@ @a kH mgAc@ cU@ ~O q r R m^, cpXo @a cU@ S ~O BFiR S, ZU ZU ~O cQ|H |"
7. "m, T-c^ΨL Ks^ c^S @ OAA@ q kH AWAc kcq Tm wT YZAS OA @A j@ذ cKɻ TW^@ n jq cQ|HcU@ ~ɮAAcfS ɮfS BSSf AcrpAcf AS@v OAU Awa |"
8. "ް jq ~S^UfUmcf Acrc j@Av ~S^ɿBU gkgAcKF A @S c^S Sq - ZAgTZ OAU sRq j@Tn @s |"
rK XopAAv cQ|H rNAv Sq | A@ا jZSq ASK OPcA T^ Tk o@ ia ް | q cQ|HF TB Hf rm-cHf ToF Aq cF a | @ZSR cJo ަc S -BSFq | cf^-TS cQ|HF AcK s TTݩ, rXo R ~ɰr oH AaU q ASK@ w\Av A@ا Ag^ j@ pf Tn a | jAv @cUq j@ U, ASw-H R c^S-~AG A@r w\ q @ sAS | A@ا S Ae J ASAT OUAhOnAv@ Ai@ q @aS | cQ|HL en^ Tw cFSAv cBS @aS AAS | ~T TS , gUq @aS | j@U AQ ASAT j@Av OUAhOn cQ|HL oH A@ػ Tm ~AgAv@ ~\ T T @v j@Av OUAhOn بAv U Zc @AiSR s jq oH B OfS @U @ cA ~ɮa | gK-Ar\ j@ eA AUZ R s- UQ UQ cK OQ U@ S- OUAhOn T Ac ~ ~S@ FQfgk @ @ | ZS AF ̲ l U ~S Zcq @AiS | aɦR s ~w cUAa, cQ|HL A Tocr Bw - jTS Ar\ ASTɻH ~B@ pAcf ɮA@R S | ~AA ~F^ Agɰf j@Av pA S UR j@Av B TSgS, @^ OUAhOn ia |

QبAo KH w\ OUAhOn- c @B S Ae cf^S w\Av ~AgA@ AXTAn@ة@ prFAݩ @c T W AcS WAv AAaUS cr dLkHgc | OfS R A̩F ɮ W @H, ~AU^, d wAU, I@, , @\-AA@ Acr ToF aS AaU s-FT ~cS@ cf^S @ UAaUS cBAS@ | ~ɻl s-@S U@@q wɮ @ ̩ q T | BSFq cf^S ԩU TU ~ɰ@f- ~A oH AOAv j@Ao@c \UZ @aS w\ | w\Av aɦR \UAZ a j@ qAS nfɮf | R j@v @S w\ ~a - ~-@A˩, ~STSQ | ~ASrF FTݩ j@ cFS w Uq oS rF AaU cf^S | A@ا S Ae OUAhOn q nfɮf w\vq \UAc oS mS B ca | U TU ~ɰ@f sc@Av sS kcB^ q qAS Sfq AT@ AaU - jqgc BS a w\Av | S Ae QبAo KH S@-SA@ @A^@ j@Av AcAr w\ ia - A@av ja TkU OS fT-Ta-sR cBAS@ة @ | w\ kAcmf cFSAv A@av wa A | S Ae QبAo KH 4. OUAhOn-ASTɻ @ZS @ZS UZ@ OS ~Ag kHq cU A S jce q ~Ssf @ASf AcS Wv S | sTS r c^FoF ްf SF AHA ~er ިިA cU A @pG^ ~ AS cɴS-j ATUS ZS a OUAhOn | SF ~a A̰-c@ oTsB@ @pGmTf (@pG^) @ب-wf c @ @ ASBR wn^ ~ OU s k T-f j@ AST ~c | ~w ^wwATSf A@ا ~^ ~, j@ AS@ m @ Uc O @ cF˻ a | A@ا AS Z a kc AT@ BS vS-j | vS-j sL m ia | s-mϩ T cfBAv H @AaU @pGmTf ~S@AS ~w | BS R AS Z ja @pGmTf@ | Dr AcoS, TSK BfcS ~ TSAc@ @dHo UANo rK a SFɮ | T@بT sAB R ~B @ AOAU R LLR OUAhOn- UW oH i@-r@ TS @ TkU @ASf wgf̩ sS A wa A@av |

jTS kH PcfF, s TkU @ASf TAw@ ~Ag@q Qبu @, oH Z s S cf^-OS OUAhOnH Qn | c @R @R OUAhOn-ASTɻ UZ@ @ASfw ~Ag ~eAr@ AcS Wv S | Av Ar\-e m ˻@F Wv s | q AcS Zc BdA AaU A@S - i jq r | ~r@ d TAH w\Av OUAhOn- QnR ~A UAaUS | q ~A ~er ccF AcS @Hq | TkU w\ TAHTAU@ ~Ue@ ASAH -@ AHgkKH @a ~ AHgkKH cF@بU ˻S vSq | AHgkKH j@w AO gA^R R c - jgcq AUZaS cf^S | A@ا FABl OUAhOn Z s TAHTAU@ L j@Av SS wS ~@KH AHgkKH @a ja | s wSAv @ c cUAaU AHgkKH | AHgkKH TS gcv FABl OUAhOn T- S, ~S@v g-AcU TrS ~@KH @a@Aa | wS- @e@U prF-OT@v R BAS gfA-ArH FABl q @A\ީ, cf^S w\ gc AaU S | ~r@ d T Zc cAr AcAo S @ ~T cU A - TAH w\ S@ j@ LfAT@, UAO, BAT sc@; SA@ j@ ~Ue@A Sf | TS ATU AS, AHgkKH gUcɮ LLR | cmc cAXofS jce DKl ~mgAc@ TAHTAU@ wS AS AHgkKH @a @ OU sq OAaU | WvS TpF a | AHgkKH ^, Acsm, Acg^ R A̽-cF@بU AO, ASBS mpA ~UMA@@ o A ~ | jq TkU @ASf-@iT ~Qبu ~a FABl OUAhOn- | ~ɮ ~er ~\q | c w\ R OUAhOn ~A^T ̮ AHT PrA\@ ~Ag j@v ~Uɰ wa AFq |

S Ae @cAURU OUAhOn rK ~er AZaS s, Tl@ r A sc v@, @SF Acc mAc cF @ cJAO, c mc ATAS Tq | A@ا TkU w\ cA T ~A Q @ ATAS ccq q v@ AAaUS | jq AcS OUAhOnAv Ac@ ~cS ca, ~O TkU ̮ Qبu AS |

US ԮTA w\ OUAhOn j@er FABl ~ dLkH ~AgA@ AcS WAvaS cU TS | TS , jv AAS @aS, cr gcAO^, OS qha | T cU SR s, ԮTA w\ S@ ST ~kc A@ا @ FABl @aS ~TkUF | jq AcSAv WvSOn @ A@av coF AaUS AAS | AS @SF TA 1961- | ca ~w 1959 U TA AaU ~ި e | q aAcR S@ ST ~kc jce gkAT@AgSR q j@q MATn OoF | T S@ mpA AXf S@ gkAT@ rS Qn r@AO A@a co WvR - jTS gcAaUS FABl | ~^ ~ި e-j S@ ST @Hq s TA- S@ ST AcS @AaUS - j mf@pA J ASBq |

A@ا jq AcS TSFq - lskHR S | ~T cUAa TA OUAhOn rK prF @ | dH S@ ScfS A@rf Lf@ @a a ~S@ gU cIcAI | s-Tk j@^ Oqa, Oqa BS@ AW j@ ASBS - q Tk T i ~ɮaS AJA A | J W-A-~ɮ cɮf ިn BSF BS BUZc | B c^ wU ; T JA qUS, U , AJA | j@T R s ~mgAc@ S, ce Zcq mgAc@ | e PA j@T av av mgAc@ AS̩ Aq | A@ا cf^S w\v AaU A@av ~SF@T | ZS Tp^f@ Aީpwp Z ~kc (AST ~TkUF) sZS @U@ɩ OU wa ZS mTf Ac cAU@ Tp^f j@v j@v @ AH a ~SAwHf A@rf | RA@ ~kc T-R, aU J R w @ cM@ c cA Z wa cU :AZ R ~S | jq T Tp^f ASB qha A ja rcA | STZ rA@ HT @ JAa | cf^S AUZaS- "rA lQHl @ cQ OA oAUS | Tk ToF g ATUS q wU |"

w\ Z s - ~kc T ިncok@ AS OU jaS @U@ɩ | Jq O, Jq ~AT m A@rf cok ASBS @Q mTf ATAU a | jgc jv ZU OUAhOn gccwn^ ަ - jTS cS ASEOq AaU | OUAhOn-AOU@ Ag^ prF XgcS @q S, e cc ~SgcAv@ U ~Sc BSF | FABl jTSgcR prF-AcSFɮ @ S sZS ިn R ިncok ATUS-Sf rA@ mĩq AcAha^ c ~AA̽ TS c S | AASR cS q Z ~erf | jTSR A@ S @ZS ? cf^S q AZAaUS | w\R rK ~er jv, OUAhOnAvR rK prF | q jv s dLkH | AccA ިn cok@ AS s-BfcS wc - BSSf ZS cq ~AA̽ - e jq FAr jce Ar FvSvq ~SH @US FABl | sA cf^ ~Ag@q prF ~Scɰ @S - Zcq A@ QA ? OUAhOn rK prF - U, AJA JS T-j TS B c^ sR - jZS cf^S w\@ ASAEO US @aS FABl | gU a A@S - Ac@ػ OUq @c |


cɮ, 22-r rcH, 2009

jq UZAv ~S TT BSS



©2009 Parabaas