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FABl q cUaS, "TrA@U a A@, ASTv j@v cA Ar\ JAa | AST cF AZ sJ ծewT ZaS, Jq U UO AgR JA@ AhaS | j ~AcArF cU A@a Sq -- @H @v JOA@ ݮ jce Wxv AS@ T @Uq s @ش s @S aAc Z S jce AS T^cFR @ S | .... T-rFT-s @Uq sA n-An@ J ge@f AcF AO A d @S ....." qFA | [1]

~^BU MU jq nAn@ M ~B@U ^ | q qxvSv ~F宮 ~ cɮ ɰ@ r Uq s A@a c^ s @ش AUZ aA U Aa | sTS ~AT |

ca ZS@ ~w cɮj cf^eZF wU-g j@ wf c^ AUZAaUT | @خe@A@ cf^SvF, w^fcɰ, mAr@ة, s^c B j@ ~@fH ~TB | AAO j@BS @U@ɩ, -v cUAaUS; gUq, c Sv@ wFT AT A@ha cI S |
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c FABl @ ZAa @@c, j@c @a @ | vAU q^ިf mvAR W-cq rFAve, s-prF ^f ~L@r | ~AT ZS Sɩq ScU@, @FT ZAS@ T J@ ɰ Av Av AwAaUT ~vw ~r | ~T A@ A@ cUAaUS, A@ ST T ? il sS TW @ iAaU |

jq TkUoS ~ ɲA@ wU O @ @بA-cA s-A@a, q AS d @Aa | ~jc j-UZ @S ~ɮU TS c SS qSqv cS S | vf@ @ AvSf, ccF @ T^cF, rS @ WKHq cAr ATUc | AT Zc ia ~B@U, Rcqv @ vmv, cq Jv @ ~wHf TOS; TSq B AUT ~ATR | c g | cCAU cAo AcrcF ; TU, TTSAe c TFSFvS @ @ش ݩ -v cUcS, @ɡSB AT A@ha cIAS |

ݩ ASq, c @ɡSB aAcv ~T cr ~SF@T Uw | (cFAnTf AUZR cUUT a nTv A@ B Bc |) ~ jq ~SF ^Sq A@a mwA |



|| @ɡSB : ~ɩ: ~SF ||


@ɡSB TA 1962 U | jq T @ASf-AOnSvF-f-AOUS Of FABl | jq T ACS ToFT aAc @US FABl | jq T @S ިm U S FAB aAc | jce @ɡSBq -WS wS @@Av aAc ToF j@Av, s r-Acr j@AvR ~FRɦ AS | cAHABF@ AcR c@ ~U ~SFT |

@ɡSB kckf A@U c ; ~ިnf, BUW, cf, AS@SF, cf^S FAOn | ~L@r ca @@ ToFq ASBm PrUf AA @aS FABl | J @a @ @TS OUAhOn ~r @ s -c^R Aco R oH r@ TS j@v oH PA wa | A@ا jLR @ɡSB j@@ @S ɦq UU S | n-An@ rB TUO@ wF @US ~\, sJ @US, J T^cFR As@ | Acr jq aAc AcrS Uq S, r AAn BSFq ݩ | TA@ػS s ~\ SB @ɦU, ݨ Tn j@Av lc ZS AaU, cvqvU Axv Bwɦ AS cU AcrS co AaU | AcAvr k̰rS T ZS U 1988 |

~SFc Tl Ar\f Tq FAB pA@R AcK, ccF R Acg ASAZ gw @ s | c j-@ TS Z BS, jTS FAA@rS ~T cI Aco BSFq heuristic aU Tn | ASAT @a j CA@H ~˻fS ~ ASTɩ @aR ~c^ ; AciS ASEOq gcSAS, jq ɦ B c sha, jc @K SqS STS s@ ! ~ިnf ɦ cJo q ~a; TS SwA@ ~U~JoA AS AX^f, fTcXo, BS-~HF; UXf S @\U R B cc US; cf^pA qxvAvrS OdU R W-cq ; jce @A˩ @v TBPOAS@ rK ASAv aAc | jaɦR BUW, ~AgsS, cf, ~HF ASAn, @ިdK R TިdK, ~rAS ߩ gpA aAcAU ~ɩ p S UR, c@Avq @ASfo c mvAUqS bF ^ɩf | jce AAv AgAq AA AFpA | f wqS cW cqS R f@ B r ToF ATU o j@Avq, Avq f-cW Amϩ | jaɦ jTS Av ~ATU aAc ~\q TU | wcc sTSq mAwU mT, f@ B r TSq cn cFL@ | s-T vgkAT j-aAc, OAU OFAUS wv A@vv US co S j S | FAB aAcAU ToF @ɡSB ~SF c@Av @q m^ | @ɡSB ~R AAr ca aAc @US FABl, A@ا jTS aAc ~ j@AvR @US S |



|| @ɡSB : AcK R AcSFɮ ||


1961 U cf^B^rcK FAB pA AS @SF R cf^S FAOn | Ai@ caq @ɡSB | @UBf AF OUAhOnS R j@ Acv cFAL BfcSOs@ U o J@ J@q ݩ FABl gcAaUS j@c SS A@a @ @ | @ɡSB TSfK OAn ~AgSnf ~U@S^ j ɲA@ j@ k̰rS Ql@ j@v SS F BSUT | @ɡSB AST U@rS SA@ T gc AaU @U@ɩ @i j@ cwScA | AOnSvF kH @ FABl @@AS ASgp sw ZJB ABAUej @ AwAaUS, A j rFAvej @B d @ FS | ABAUej @ Tq aAc qBU cU UUS, PrUrq iU U@rS | aAc ST wU @ɡSB | ~w A@S TA@ aAc A@ ST BAS S, c aAc oS OAn@q ~Acy @US ABAUej, @q ZUS ST-gkAT@ |

@ɡSB aAc T sv OZ w\fS | rZS@ ATASv PWF jq OUAhOn ~a AcAg^ OAn @UB, fQH eU, ~oH ASwprF jce mrf ~cf, A@ا Sq @S m @ASf | aAc d @ rK ~cAo sQH cHS ް, r@ WA @JvR Ai@ ZASq T c s | j@v cJo mޮ-vqT cɩcH @@Av OAn@ a R a, cFA@ R mA@ gUTxv @@v ZаprF ~T TS i ~ɮa | w\ cJo wl @ ~ɮ fQ jq T @US FABl, @ɡSB |

AF c AST, oH i@-r@ s ~r @S A@ا w\q | AcgkAgkKH c^oF AUZaS, "\Uf ~U j@ ~\ArAQة cAU@ @ثp@ ~AT j@c j@v w\ cU ~SdXo q | TZ TZ cAS j@v s w\ @a @A | w\ S cU -- w\ S aq, j ~c A@ ? @ cUUT @S, A@ K a ? TAv cU, j A@aq U S, j ~c A@ w\ ? ... cHS c, gK c, WvSR c, ~O rK sF^ A@aq U S, w\ j O c ~ZFA ~ A@aq Sq" | [2]

o \Uf ~U ~\ArAQة cAU@ @S, ~T @Uq w\ c AST jq R c^ Zc wfc A@ | rK Aw S@-SA@ ATUS S Acha, S TH TI T ~TL qFA A@a j@v Bc̰m R, s @ Umv A@ U v@ @ TU, jTS S R AccA, AcgA^R | jq @ASffS @ASfAOn U s j@v IJA@ ha v FABl gUq cIS | AUZaS, "The love of narrative, in no matter what disguised form, is too deeply ingrained in the human species. It is true that the audience has changed in the last fifty years, and equally true that the film makers have discovered a hundred different ways of telling a story where there were only a dozen" [3] @ɡSB cFcY SFAvgR ݩ @S AwqB T, c w\ cU rZS@ ~A@ j@Av | A@ا 1961 U r@ BSF Zc j@v m䨩 AaU S | jZS @ةv, mA ?



|| @ɡSB : A@a SS ASfQ ? ||


@ɡSB aAc A@ U (c A@ Uq S) Acmp ~UOS @c S | FABl s @ɡSB Ag A cUaS, @UT AK @r ~c, ~^ ~T @UT AK | sJ aAcv ZaS, J AcK-AcSFɮ BSS | ~ sJ ZSAS, J @a jq UZ ~c^ |

@ɡSB AS @S wgf-wf ~FSAUAR s ~T AcF cq, ATq cUAa | jq ~oF o @@Av j@^ cFA@ ~Sgc @ cUc, aAc ~SO-@SO s ZJB Xo Aa, To Aa |

FABl ASB cUaS, "@ɡSB @ASf ceUr j@Av rHfAcrK@ @^ @ | jq rHf K@-~K@, OU cU qc hO ToFAc a m | @ASf WvSmU U ABAUe r |" [4]

~F AcSS @p er, ZAS@ j@TAn@ UR | "Set around 1961, it (the plot) shows a hundred-odd minutes in the life of a group of Calcutta Bengalis on the last day of their holiday in the hill station of Darjeeling, during which they have failed to catch a glimpse of the great peak Kanchenjungha. They are a family of rich industrialist, the director of five companies, who holds a title given him in British days of which he is still very proud. As the film begins, he is preparing to leave his hotel, along with his wife and younger daughter, to take a walk after lunch. He has arranged to meet a man whom he wants to be her future husband, and hopes that he will prpose to her if they are left alone together. Her feelings about this, and the unfavourable reactions to the idea of her mother, uncle, elder sister and brother-in-law, form the substance of the film, along with her feelings towards an outsider, a boy from Calcutta who meets her almost by accident. Although nothing definite develops between them, his very presence, combined with the inspiring mountain setting, decides the girl to reject her suitor. She is helped too by her knowledge of her mother's unhappiness and the obvious failure of her elder sister's marriage. By the time the walk is over and the industrialist arrives at a pre-arranged rendezvous, expecting to find his family gathered there with the succesful suitor, certain decisions have been taken and accomodations reached without his knowledge by each member of the group; and none of them is there to greet him - only Kanchenjungha" [5]@@Av c@FTA ݩ j @ cAr cIS s S, c @ɡSB jc cvq A@ا j cqR ~S@ A@aq |

"It could be said of each of my first four or five films, that they are simple stories straightforwardly told. All of them have filmic qualities, but none of them has much variety of technique. The first exception to this undoubtedly comes with Kanchenjungha" [6] qFcAo ASB@ gC cS O U FABl @AaUS @ɡSB jce jq@T OS PccAS@ ɮ S @U Ar\f rK S Ov @q |



jq T ACS aAc @US FABl | ~c ca r@ C q ~rASߩj | "OAn بAv UR s C sF @ , j AcK @S ^ Sq | ... @ɡSB aAc ~v SAv oS OAn K@ AScOS qc OAn TAB@ ~cmS, cFAw, TSA@ ~cm -- j c A@aq qAʩ c ɮ AaU | ɰ-@U j@Bv c ~eAr@gc, cA@v@ب ~cF @ s, S eU sF cU |"[7] @ɡSB @S OAnq cr cU sw AaU S, q s j@cmq J ް i jaS, gcq ~U r@ | q^S aU O C r@q v OvU, TSfK BɬAS rA sS FZSq kcw, ~r@ a-K TɬU @بAi ~UOA̩q wb @, UcHF Tp S rU J l@iq Fɩ@ | jaɦ Sgc T ABAUCj Ac@U @pA o SS cFS | IUTU ɳ Sq, ~a @بr sR ~ɮ, ~U A@ ~c Bw Ri | ިvq ~ɴv j@v aAc ~U j AcAg^Tݩ AcU | @ةpL, AcrɮfS, c^Ψ, O, ~ASEOݩ qFA F@Av Tq ATAU R a q TkAv @pA |

@ɡSB Bwl ɰ-@U cfQH S | ~UR ~a, ~JoR ~a, @بr ~a, ɰR ~a, AAOA ~a ~c ~AAOAR | OAn @شq BwS S gfKH gU Uw c gfKH T^ Uw | Acv Ar\ޮpA@ T@AcF@ cU fA ~a, q o@ cJA@ AS cU OU, @ɡSB sS j@ ˻@ ~FAxv-jA@ | OO ɰ Sq, ~a v @ɮ | s A@a fc, @v S | ACS AUT cFc @ɡSB f@f, gc gU Uw ~T | cHUf J@ J@ s B ~STf C TU, s ocF o POSF, ASq @c jZS |

C cFc S UR ݩ j cq vS s, A@ا U sAv cF Avq @ɡSB oS ~@KH j@Av, q@SAT ~ T | Ai@ sv@ب BS v@بq qAʩ, cF ~ ~cF ToF j@ mA^ Amϩcm | ~S@v ~@r ToF ~\ @r fH ~U o jq aAc jAwa |

AST TkU o @ ZAS@ AcAha^ UR Bwfr ~ ~r@ ~\ ZASQH ~U w @v s | AT: cFSBf ~ TSfK@ A qB ~F nɴ AcA @ cJO Bwfr ~r@@ j@@T cwUc @q AS jaS | ASAc @ rShaS J A AZ Ac @ | ~@r ~@r AAO S Ai@S cU sha, TSK ~SAc@ UfU ~SK | ASf SgO wR Uwa gF ~wɮf ~JO | ArAQة TSK, emp TSK Tnq s J cpA R BS pAcfv cq Bwl@ ASR gc @ ZS, aJR ~T q Bwfr @ | s mv kA swF S, c BTq AA cpAXo, R s gw @ AS pA cmS, jTS AO^ sS j@ @TU Poc T cr @ aAc | 1961 U AcrAO^ SSq AaU, Ar\ޮpA cr WvAS cF@gc | ˻@ Ar\fq ASB Ar\ TF@ p S, jTS gcSR gcS R @r @S J @pA-@pF, T @ ~S@v jAwq | cf^S cpQH lc sZS cS, jSSB jSgSTxv AS rɮ ZS FrS AS |

Bwfr OAnAvq @ɡSB ja @H ASa@ w\ cU c AS | w\ cU s SS ~A@ ASfQ jZS q S ̮ Bwfr |

FAB cf c aAc eU s oS gkAT@, s Oc@ T vS Z r@@, s @ɤ rK aAc ~w@j, kOS jq @ɡSB | prF cɰ A aAc ɴvF@v SAa cc, ~@ ~SF gw g iAa |

q^S j@gc @ cUS, UcHF cUSq S, sZS cUS, ~SFgc | ~r@ j@ ~A@, Bwfr ~@, TSfK AT: cFSAB ZAS@ ~ɦ gA, ~r@ ~S@ cUfU | ~AHT mTf, Aa ~AT BS, BSc ~w S, sS Ac^ Acc T@cF AS s | q j@q prF OU om @ػ TTA OR | ~ Ai@ ZSq j@Tn @SF v Wɦ O AQH @ OUa oAnf T Am ~r AީTɩ@ |

AcAg^ ToFR c^Ψ TSfK R AT: cFSBf ~U,
-- ^f ~ ASAZUr...,
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-- ~AS W cq SAS ?

j o @@Av rN TAq S |


s ɦf cU@ ި ASTv B s ~, @ɡSB Tq sw\l cF ~O AcAha^, TZ j@AvR @ SAS AOU@, A@ا OAnAv ިvq j@Av ccF, j@v Acv @Svmv | aUAv mSfݩR f@, @ɡSB ABAUe sTS T˻@, TS jq aUAvR |

@ rAr JvR, @ɡSB jrS ~@ FɩS | ި aAc Bq jq OU @, @Uq | @ZS B Jv, @ZS ~m, @ZS T sR | TSfK OU UAUF ATAU s wA, AT: cFSBf Ql@ sq qTF A@ jw @ |

@ɡSB ~cf c @ UZF, W W A A ~ɮ j@ cF oS | jq Axve oSf R ~cAi @ɡSB ATU Aw PA j@ ~Xg ~cr | "j@A@ ɦ, ~SFA@ q-c gc -- jq q TkU kn @ @ɡSB ~cf Xgc | ɦf U@خf qhaT gC rf R AcUɩf s^ j@@ R Tc gc cAB j aAc TBB ~Sc O AaU" | [8] jTS gcq FABl cFZF @aS J T f AOUS ɮ |

~c cBS aɦR @ɡSB cf^S j@Av wS cFc ~a | j c c @ , ~AT i@ب @i | AcK^ ^F S^fTZ, ~U waS UcHF j@U, AS:rN rA @بr@fH Or | Bwfr JAaS j AaS jce wS rK UcHF ~Acy @S J@ ; j@ @ eU հɰ ~ Bwfr , aAc mrfT TkAU ~SFT | wS AScOS jZS lsT, Tn OAv an ToF er, ^, r@ R :Zgݮv | AS:ʩ Sq, cf^S jTS wS TUq S ݩ | c qr ca UZ jq wS j@@fL sS BTv cJo ~a, kOwATH ASm Sq, TS ~S @ SA j ^, | ި AST UcHF s-@Av @ cUS @ wS j-@Av an ~S@ cAr c | s wS @ AAS AaUS c@U AScɮS, il mkH ~B UcHF@ AU j@ ~gcSf B | Bwfr MF av T@ BS OqUS, AXo^q c rK @, cɰ AAS ASB TUcS | a j@v wS c UcHF sS j@ Acv AZ A jUS, ~LB BfcS @ @ةpL a ~ɦU @ iUS |

cf^S wS cFc FAB aAc cF@ S UR AcAr | A@a aAc A@a TS ja jqc wS, AAmA@ AS wa j@@ة | OdU, ~AT AOAS w AOAS T ; W cq AcAo cJoS @vc AT ; c ~w@j cABU @ cfH ; jAU cɰ AUR ~ @@Av A@^ TS ~ | @ިdKj A A@AS@ sn, j ~AT s wAa cc ; TAH nm cɩ cB @dH ; c rZ-rZ TA OۨqgA TA U TA ~T ; Zc OS wSAU@R sS SS @ AOAS s |

c ~c f cɰ AUR, @ɡSB j@ ~F^ fA@ aAc | j@Av Uf sTS ASA U a^ Uj, ިvq @S ~wT A@\S TA@ OU, TS @ɡSB Z c ~T TS a, prF, eU, rN, f cq j@ PSAF@ @ABS a@ ZU cha | j@v FvS ~ɮa sha, A@ا @ o sha S, Ai@ q A@ c j@v ~gɮ sS cɩ ~a, j@v ZJBUq ݩ R sc, A@ا ATUa S | @iTv j@cq ha^, A@ا ~a | EOɩF oްf f FAB ~Sw R cFlA AcA | ݩ Sv T c TS @S mv@O ASAZ gcAaUS aAcAv@ | j cAr TTɰWvS ~T cAo cq | c ~BA^@ \UcwA jv@ب cUq UUT, rKprF @ɡSB m@r j@ ˻@ coda Tq TA |



|| @ɡSB : @ɡSB ||



qmU j@c "s Sq g, Sq g" cɰv ZU @ ɦS c if c@F OS @AaUS, s Sq g, Sq g, ~jc AS cFm Ug Sq | @بAީ ArQ@ SS Oyްf KH cUS, R Tv Tg̩, AXfv g̩cK | q ~wq cU ASq, jZS Tv @ɡSB aAc R AXfv @ɡSB Ok |

@ɡSB aAc @ɡSBq s oS OAn ST qA o ަUR r@ @a Ay of of | AT@ A@\S TA@ @U@ɩ @a cwScA aAc U@rS UR ݩ FAB Ag B ˻@ ASTq | A@ا c OAn, c eU, c ~cR j@ @UR jq @ɡSB ATU @ةq S, @H @ɡSB@ cɰ A @ɡSB gcq s S | aAcAv ~cS R OAn AccS, A@@ R mA@, cq SF S@ R AS^ ABAUej @pA jce @بr-b@ @ɡSB, s Z j@cq -- j@ذT rK, ݩ TfTe T |

TSK Os @pA gc AS Ar\ޮpA O a, ToF laR ~S@ | jTS AFR ~\ S | @ɡSB TkU fT ~UOS TS @@Av \UZ ~c^ c S |

TW R M UZ j@r caR ~w, oS An@ T @r 1301 cN | w\haj ~^g a | kOS jTS gc,

"kcAS cpA q Awa | ~B Q^cKH ɩ:@U S M R Z TW ATAU A ~ɴr oS Qn snT ~S ~S fW AU cUq sqAaU, Acmp rFT AOnv j@c ~U@ mr BU ШcH oH @AAaU, ~c QHq aU wb Amo ~Aߩ qAaU |

sZS Tm ~@rgkAT TW R M, qAv Tn ~AgS ~S ~S ~er ~AgS @AAaU ZS AS egkAT @ة mS @ة ~AgS OAUAaU ~ eZF Sq | " [9]

AwAcU R rArgkKH w\ cU ~v Aha o | AXf Aha w\ vgkAT Amϩ @c T, @r s PrA\@ m\ީ, ~SSF jce jZS ZAS@ AQ TS UR Xop S @ Aa S | "wT ToF ~ @Uq UɰAU On^, qQب OK, ATF T@سT jce v @c Uq A@ة, gc ~UOS @A̩ @cU rArgkKH R AwAcU |" [10] o j@Av c@F Ag A i ja j@v wv TAB@ AQة, s q ~J@ a jq q OAn AnTH |

jq w\, TW R ɳ @S ~cRA@ ~UOS S -- ~TcF ~U sTS Zv@ UAaU OdU gkA@ -- jce w\ s U ~ s U S TW R M gkAT@ ~CU A ZS @AiS | LLR @ASf wTS R w^cF AAO ~SF @S ST ew TS S | rArgkKH R AwAcU TAF@ BfcS WvS ASAU @pA ~@Am@ R AcAha^ UfU@ s kn wJaS cf^S, OSS R OSS Tl Ar\fq |

BfcF R mS kH Ag^ ~@Av avw\ @R jZS TS ~ɮ | Tv TT-j S | (Rain, by W Somerset Maugham) BB-sn sw Av qeB A ~r ASaS r^ Tɮw j@Av BSAcU Xf, @c SC ic Ai@S Sq | Xf ~Ao@erq m\ޮgF SAvg, @BS r©cerXg ~Ao@f@, cFcfR ~aS | ~@BS r©ASf A S, j@ rɰ PmAHf, jce ASB cAHBFR d @S ASAXo, kcɽ A S@ w | A@ا jqc ~cm R cFcm aA Ri j@ @pA@ WvS, ~Acr^ cpA | cHS jTS -- "And Dr. Macphail watched the rain. It was beginnning to get on his nerves. It was not like soft English rain that drops gently on the earth, it was unmerciful and somehow terrible; you felt in it the malignancy of the primitive powers of nature. It did not pour, it flowed. It was like a deluge from heaven and it rattled on the roof of the corrugated iron with a steady persistence that was maddenning. It seemed to have a fury of its own. And sometimes you felt that you must scream if it did not stop, and then suddenly you felt powerless, as though your bones had suddenly become soft and you were miserable and hopeless." [11]jq w\ ASdH R OT@ R s AHA cS j@Tn mf@ @ s jq cpA gkAT@ AOS U | j@AS sB@ AgS s WvS rA@ ަUS Wv U o Rq Acr BSFq; Rq ~TW ~F oɩ sS oq AAaU ~f, wAU AAaU ~AmL Ar@ئAU | qha @q @ASfAv w\ Acr @ cUc S, @H jZSR ~rKAvq ~ɮU, A@ U -@ cU s S, jce s wU, ~Uf@, ZU c ~@v @\SAcUɮf @a ASa@ AeA@R TS |

jq q w\ @pA ja q gc | TW R M ASw q k U@OA cS ~a w\ WvS chiaroscuro ToF jce jTSq ASިH ASAc۩, s oq ~SgcwTF | Sj cpA j@qo AQة R AOU@, @@Av TSK@ j@ ~Xg, ~gcSf ~c ~v@, ~a OMAO @ Aa | TW R M @pA sTSq ~U T̩, Sj TSq gfKH Acg | @ɡSB ~cmS, jq q TITAI | @بr ~SwS, @ɡSB ~cAi, jq TI OAn W | AAO pAcf b@ s, ~S@ swA^@ r ~ɦU OU ~, TSfK cU RiS, TS ATmv c | s ASB AS AAS wmAU @ j@v aA sR ~cOS O @Uq | sAR @Uq BSS, j lQAH@, ~c A c qJv @i @U@ɩ, sZS AA A^, sZS AvrFAS @ OUS @pha A@ @ @ش c A@aq Sq | A@ا BSUR @ TS qha S, ~^ ~ɩ: R ~ɩ: |

@ɡSB ~a, A@ا OZ TS Sq jq ~cmvq AST AcrK Tn jS Aa | sJ ABAUe waS jce AS AS ASASTK ~Q @aS @ɡSB BSF, Z ݩ SAS, ݩ aS, J BSS @TS j@v ennui AW o fQ ASwAU | jq AAmA ASAZq aAcv AcrɮswF R ~Sgcf Ri | ABAUe FAB Zcq A Bw AaU, Prrc waS cr @c, @ AUZRaS mpAOH |

rK prF @ɡSB XoS | q^S ASA Bw JMa ZS AAS j@, @ش ~AS | cIS @R j@v a@ RUv-Uv a, TZ AcA, g@بAv | il Wɦ WA, ZS @ɡSB |

~F AcSS AUZaS, "As the mists at last roll away from the awesome summit, the industrialist is so pre-occupied, he no longer cares to admire it. " [12] rK ɩAv rN j@T A S | q^S ~L @ Bwfr, cFSBf....., J AccU@ AOAS | ASTK BSF ~B Ac@U ~S@ c ~FB gU Aw AASR g sS ~ɦ ~cw | rK @@ ASTK @FT Am @, A@HA@fv @ɡSB, M@K ~AcOU | SFAvg JMa s rK, A@ا @S ToS S | ~c ݩ @بr c, b@ sc ArZ, ATmvj ToF S ~S@ A@aq, cc ݩ | ް B o j@v Tk jce jq QAH@ TkhaSq cA BU Ri U (c s AvAg AZ, @S JɩS c Acmv AcS ISIAS Ri)| AST rK jce ިSEO TI s-v, v r@@ ASB@q Jv |

TSK ha ɮ-ArA^ PcfF @pA AST@ ASAUA, jTS ~fTg LL ݩ ZJBU R s @ɡSB WJv | c ~T TS , @B A@ ? o w\q @ TS R, A@a ZS c A@a rZS | jce @ɡSB s w\ S ɬq ~wq wR a |



|| @ɡSB : r@ A@ @ ||



AST r@ gkAT@ j@@T ~cArF@ة sɻ | @H, @Ac Qn sZS Ar\OO @H cU oq @wB-@AU, AOn@ C-AU-qBU, AOU@ ZS US Acv qSgmvTxv AS ST (cAr gw Tq s @S @بc sB@) | j@v aAc r@ S ASU, AOU@ aAc ~r rq @ |

"Renoir once remarked that it was the alertness and receptivity of the french public that made possible the resurgnace of the French cinema in the 'thirties'. The public that would support a truly serious film venture in Bengal is so small that it makes nothing than a two reeler a safe business proposition. If one makes a film aimed solely at this minority, one obviously makes them for love. In reality, no director can afford to do this, for once the stigma of esotericism attaches to his name, his days in the profession are numbered" [13]

jq cAo ST FAB ST @ةv Jv AaU -AS @ػ S-AwR jv ASEOq cU s J AST r@cU AO@Uq fH R fAT | jv @S A̩ AcK S | Ar\ m @ Acm jce s@S gɽq ASB a^T ޮ ZJB SR mofS R ~Ao@ ~a | s-@H cFScw @SO rSS A@a U@ jce @S ~oSfr w@ wU-ZJ@A AcF^ɰ SOS @@ UZ, Ai@ q @Hq ~\ A@a r@q FAB AST ~SocS R ~Sgc @ S |

jq AQةv T Zq ZJB s@ @ɡSB ~AgW @HAU, Acr R r |

JOUf Acr AAOA R ިmpA @H ~S@wAU | AOUS AvF, @ASf PcAr@ ~cS ASEOq | c jvR UZ @ , JOUf ZS g̩cK Acr @a AaU cr OS jce FArR | T A̰F, ~S, cFAo, B, TpF jce ~crFq @ H ~H O ; jTS aJOv RA@ Zc BcoF, g̩-en^ cF | jq TSA@ةv jq cF s @U@ɩ c^ j@ c Acr cq, r HrA@ A^ @ Acrf UZ@@ T w AS a TSwf PSF, AZ^ R @ذT ɩ@S |

c s cmc F ASq Ar\ jce O mS Sq | q JOUf AA@ rNf c sZS e JA cɲcq j@ ަA SA@, r PSF cq AZ g gcTkA Zv @ BSF KS FABl@ (g̩ Tɩ ~c jq gTAU j@v AcrK Ac AaU), ZS ASB AScAXo aɦ ~ A@aq TH @ SAS |

JOUf R Ai@ aAcAU jq AAO g̩cKq TH ATUAaU Acr | JOv UwU @ɡSB j | @U@ɩ j@v ATS, j@ TA@ػS TAU, cS ݩ ZFɩ AUT cXo, FABl@ ɮA cU cS, "Who are these characters ? I don't like them at all." FABl vf@ BaS, "She was only interested in the poor Indians, the lower class Indians, the Indians who suffer and are really rooted. These hybrid sort of characters disturbed her greatly.[14]

K Ag gk jqZSq | @ɡSB w\fS ~oAS@ UR, T R TB j@Av AcrK mSR Ar@ئ wgf | jce q vgkAT@ AOS wU g ~oAS@ qAɮ BS c R gc cI c cTS | s q-c OAnAU@ AS jq aAc, BSA ToFq s BA ~a r ca qeB rɮS, @ cA ~ɮ ewT jce j@Av BA AccS @زcZ | g̩ c^ A^ ~w R BS ~oFc S @U @S Acrf Q jq Qv cI ~c | jce q S-cI ASAZ @ɡSB OAn ~Uf@ TS Rq mgAc@ |

jc Z s@, rf @TS cIUS | rf cU jZS cCAUq, FAB AST g ~SF r AAOA TS Acr @R @T | ~c cCAU ToFR sJ U sS FAB aAc Z, J @Uq s gw Uw R ݩ S | ASB ~Agک @q cAU | ~w@ AAUB @AaU FAB H q, AS ~m waS, g̩L WKHR sfA ~wF ~: | r Bɩf aAcR U, Z BSF ZAS@ A AaU | AQH @U@ɩ U rj ToF, c "Sɮ, ~ rq Sr" Aa, AaS A @ SAa, cr j@ g^ wpASf AIT^ A@ cUaS, A@ ZAU gF AS gFBgFBAS | jJ jc AST jAaUS, jZSR ~S ASEOq, q @Hq s-@H AedT cf^ OScUfR AB ZaS j@v, OT cJoq | jce jJ TS U ~TASR SS, cXoc c jJ ~T @aS q 1961 cf^ OScUf w\q |

ASB gK r@ @a ASB aAc jq A^@ة LR FABl wAaUS ASBm R ASAc j@ r@TUf | jce q @ɡSB Acc @U, Ac̽R |

Uv 1962, mofS ZSR TFɦT AS | l@UfS TB TF @ j@^q ecfS j@v vgkAT, A@a q WJK OAn -- ިo cɰ @rF R ޻q J qeBfA BA @S -- WvSfS j@v SFAvg, FAB Ag ~˻fS cF aɦ ~ A@aq S TS AaU ~S@ | jce jq TS R ~ B̰ @H jq rHf ZSR TB cr prFTS q cTS | s ~f@ AaS U r ZS @A˩ jw Oqa, jq Ar@A۩ @ɡSB OAn, s AS OUAhOAn@ AOA@lR A^ U q ~f@ A̬q @ ɮ Acq | ~B@ AAS@FU OZ A ݩ jTS pAgA ɮF@ c ~AcrɮFR Uw , c l@UfS AcO j sF r RiAS | q TA@ػAS TAU B FABl cUS, "Rememeber the two hundred year colonial rule and you will understand that these characaters are very valid, very true to India; there's nothing wrong with them as such. You may object to the fact that I have made a film about them. That's a different matter altogether."[15] jq ~cB@rSq @ɡSB A l@UfS rf AAnR TkU | cq OAn OSq wU S cU ~cAo, ~ Ag j gU @q OS wU s AST TkUFS rAL@ Qɩq c U |

cq jvq j@Tn @H S, ~@v ~a ~ F, TZFR ݩ | s q-c TB@ ZS a @ɡSB, J Tq A@ا AaUS FAB r@ ~SFT | s r ca @UASU sw ~oAS@ g qAɮ-@pA@ pAB R OAU @a, s emr Xo aS TTS, Tq@U, cAT, cf^S @ FABl ~cAo, FQ sw S @U FAB Ar\ T j@U@Av@ cF cI s A@ ? s m@vT j@q aJ s ASAZUr-^f R cɴASe A, @ gw @ s OO R rfUS Uw, R s T Rq -~JrU TBq | jJ c-Lf TS B @ cUS, , , ~q Fg jF cqv AشO ; jJ ABAUej j ca @@AS ~^ ~cAr c c Sl ~FeU-qAS mBɩF TH @ sS | jce jq r@q ASB ZJB US @ɡSB ް | ASB OUOUS cgc s gc بv ia AST Z ~mAm US J, jce jq ss AOnH, s QgR jU | @ɡSB j@ TUO@, AF @vq AUZ UAaUS, aAcv, " is a disquieting and unflattering mirror held up before the viewer. And the easiest way of escape is to refuse to see one's image on it "[16]

j@Av BA AHA R ArfUS j@oH T@Ai AS:^ TUOS A AG | qeAB AF qeB AS s ɮ, Aɮ, cF, Ac a qݫ Sq | jce AF BSAR a | cCAU j cF AO@Uq ff | Sf^S TB TkUo @ AcAha^ jq q-c ASB A @vQ ZJB US @ɡSB, jce J ASTv Aq Ac @U | ~ɮU jJ Rq A Ag AU F A^mAS UAB@, ~ɰc@ݰ q UR mgc q cq AaUS |

jZS, @ɡSB ASTH OA\Ur ca , PScFA@ TkUFS co ~ɩ: ~S@ @T | mofS cASq w R, q q-c TBR ~ޮp | ~B@ cCAU @a cɴASe A c ASAZUr-^f, TSq k, TSq ~@A | (c, cCAU@ Oɦ R BSF A@خc SS Fw ~B@U d ha SAa | Sc-^K v^K STof em @^A SA@ @JO-@a TU TU wJ-w Aw Bw-vw cU J@S -Nc | )

sq@, AAmA@ PS@vF Sq cUq @ɡSB ~B@ ASfQH ~R ew c jTS gc s A@ ? j r Ac@ػ Q | Rq O S rS s@ ceUr ~@ ~Q, "ceU ASB TS gcAv Ai@ T @ @r @ jTAS r, s UZv j@v Uq AcrK | ... s UZv Sc oH: @S AcK @S @ gU @ gc ~gFɮ Sq, q BSF c @q aA aA AcmA̩ @ UZ @ | s @v@ e eAQ @ AUZU RAABSFAUAv, BU, Amبv , @v@ BU ATAr cFZF @ AS^q ~A@Al@ @ U .....| .... cCAU j@v @S gc kn TS TS B ~SH @ S, j@-T fAUC T i O ....|" [17] AsAS AUZaS, J@ UZ gKR PA @ AS AaU, FABlR TS ceU AST gKR ~S@vq PA @aS | c jq UZ rNf cAr @v wa, cCAU cfQ @ةv cUa ?



|| @ɡSB : ~: A@T ? ||



@ɡSB ToF A FABl ASEOq r@ c^ s cI cI wUS, c ݩ ~wq cIS, sOq @ ASUS | j J pBSrfU ~SF R ~SSF o cq UwU | ~AgsS, TSw, OdU, @ިdK R TިdK J r@cp^@ FrTq OTl@p @U. ިmR U r-Acr | c SFAvg AS jATxv J بAS ; 1966 U jU S@ |

@ɡSB jce S@ ToF ATU Zc wS, c ~a | ZASQH cJo T, ZAS@v cJo cp @@Av OAn SA@J, oU eU, jce q rKTK A@aq S R | c jc r@ ZU, jce ww | jce oS @H ~A^T ~AgS T TS@L ATUATr j@ sR | ~q@SA cCAU @a T Tɦ@ AST ~ c A@a jU BOF ~ | ASBm gKq jcR cUUS FABl c jc r@ SU R ɩAU AU, cIUR ݩ | PrA\@ ~SSF BSAݩ ATrU, s A c r AZaS OT ɬUF, FABlR @ d @US S@ @q | ~ JAOr ca aAc @US FABl, c AcK, AcSFɮ R ccF@ BAw UUS J TSfK aJR |

c @ɡSB j@@q qU | jAv ݩ TSq j@ pA kL s m | T jAw OU, بA sS, c pA j@v ASBm BfcS @, cJO @ ASB T | ~ pA BfcS OA\Ur ca @S Tq S |

ASEOq ~r ~a, @ɡSB @S TS TkUFS c TS @SAS, ݩ cɮj ɩq | ~AT @UT S ; @S ATq aS |



=========================

F޵f

1. AcKs OUAhOn - FABl | ~S^ cF@ , ~S^ cAUrɮ qgv AUATv | O˻ TH, BUq 1997 - [Ac:O:] | p: 79

2. "av w\" - AcgkAgkKH c^oF | r̰f r 1408 | p: 137

3. Our Films, Their Films - Satyajit Ray . Orient Longman. Reprint 2001 - [OFTF]. Pg 94

4. Ac:O: - p 69

5. Satyajit Ray : The Inner Eye - Andrew Robinson. Rupa 1990 - [TIE] Pg 137

6. TIE - Pg 140

7. Ac:O: - p 116

8. Ac:O: - p 69

9. w\ha - cf^S i@ب | Acrg̩f w^SAcgw, PcrZ 1396 - [w:w:] | p 225

10. w:w: - p 227

11. Collected Short Stories Volume 1 - W.Somerset Maugham. Vintage Paperback.

12. TIE - Pg 227

13. OFTF - Pg 39

14. TIE - Pg 140

15. TIE - Pg 140

16. TIE - Pg 136

17. Aa^ncUf - cf^S i@ب | Acrg̩f, POn 1399 | p 300






aAc : ~dHe Ae

Published October 31, 2002

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