q cf^S (cf^S - AcK@ j@Av ~e@AU OS)

AT Oncf


~AT Oncf (1901-1986) T TsXoɫ ceU @Ac ToF ~SFT | fW@U AEOT-cɮf jq TSKAv ~oF@, AO^Ac R AcrrA^ c R ~^BɻA@ AAOA^ | AAS 1921 AZN @ rA^AS@ةS ccɮ @aS 1933 s^ | iAaUS cf^S @a TSK | J AOc J@ sF @AaUS 1925-26 @ 1933 s^ | ~@ɦ AcrAcFU @ wcKH-cpA AcArSf mf R Ar@SF A AAaUS Acr | cf^S J nsw jce TS sw @ZSR AcAha^ AS | Acrg̩f @ @Ar AOAin j@ɰr ZAv ~AT Oncf@ UZ cf^S AOAi e@US | cf^S 1930-j q gTH f AaUS ~AT Oncf | q gTH-cɩɻ AUAZ AaU J TɩU ~oF@ TS PTn r | UZAv @Ar cɮf An@ @A@ 1337 cN (1930) | @R jq UZAv e@AU AS | cf^S B^-orcK UQF UZAv An@ p @ Xop @ AUT | ~AT Oncf cɮf @SF rfTf T^f gOs Aީ scf ~e@AU OS cFc @c ~STA ~T@ AaS | J@ @pک BSq | ~AT Oncf gTH ASc^Av @ػ BSf F U |


|| q cf^S ||

20r BUq, 1930



Tv T BTSf AnTH @AO - r s A@a ~ASq ~T @a j ަO | sZS s-A@a ^, mHf, jr TSfKf sJ gcOS, ~J@OS, AUZOS cf^S B @U AO WvO, ~TR gw Aha | jTS wgf @ AcAOn @ ݨ@ BSc gsw @ZS c gAcAS | TTSK r jAO, j c @ gc BS jce O rA A gc@ @T ASw @ | j Bɩf BwH j@^ wA ToFR TScOAn kH@ ~mf@ @AS, Ar\ AF TBpA A@ AO^ j wɦ @ @B UwO | jZS SkS @ j@w oS X j SkS BTɻSf@ w UO s mA | cɦf cSS, cq UZ, PAS@ eA@ AcAocFcm, @U Qnq j TS kH SkS OS BU ~U UO, TkU @ H c cU wa, TkU @ H haA ~B cfsF TSf @Ar ha | j qeB T KrfU g ~ɦU wAc ~LOS AScɻA Sq | j ɮf T OUOA@ة ASݩ AcSrfU S, j ToF gA j@v OAnAcm ~a, U ~ɦ۲cfS YcS TSKFL ~a | pAcf @R cf^S@ j O crf gUc gc A S, - vw SUq vU @ةpQ, vTwɦf AvA@v @ػ, @UB aUT ~oF@, cAH@ S B@بUAASAo - jTS @ش Sq jr s TZ BU S Ri; sZSq ~T sq BoAS ~S^ ~gF˻S j Q l cH @ ~oF Ri | B B aUT M cpA JA ~a vw@ Zc cU - jr r Ag sJ J g QH@Tn RJ @a j rXo BAS lب\UAO OU sS | s s - A@a ~a, بU cwS, ^ cɦf, c wɦf, Tɰ, ~AF ~B @Ac @a I ; AS ~SɮAO @U ToF A OU sS, A@aq RJ@ cJo S | TmQHq j qSmɦ @S s, sZSq s cUOS @Ac T r @r | AO^ OT rsF aA OU sS | @SZS @ Ac@U cf^S c^S s @dH, s cS U@ TZ Z q ~T TS Ac@U s | ~TR H gUcɮ q, c^ΨY S jTS @ ~T @a ~ s O , swF fQ ~^ AO Ri | A@ ^ r ToF A sAha A@ cUc - jq crf M^sF ZAO, j crf Yݩ AO s c@U kcq ~T @ بA wa | j@AS j@Av av ~Agک WvS j@vZASR gAU S, A@ا Ai@ q BSFq UZc cU @cU Ov oH @ cU aɦ @ S | @TS @ cIc AASݩ A@ AhO, A@ cIAO, BSAO, gcAO | ݩ @SAS A ~Agک ~UɦS A@a j@v kH @r ~gɮ @S OS A c | A@ا jZS S | cAUS, S, TFAS@, jvU, Rc~Twɴ, V߬بv, Tvv, jce ~rr @ة aAc, @ة U@, @ة A@ ZUT - jZS rK @aR ~A AS | AASq cf^S@ SkS @ AOSAO - @ة gc J Ag ~B cf AQH s ~ɮO, jce Acq J OTA@ة TS rsF IU iO |

~T ST@ػ jce qvBUF ~R j@Av @ SkS ~Agک BF sc gcAO | ި Ai@ AS, Uq BS cS | BSg Tm cF c |

26r BUq, 1930



TcFw j jq AOAi rK @AO | ToF ~A THf jq r | ~BR ~c wgf n AOAi AUZ cAO | Tm AS Aʩ r mpA TS ToF S @O | cf^S AS o qeAB j@Av SkS @T vf@ A\T BSF Sv@ AUZOS | aAc T jR J SkS pA Sr SOS ASEO jr r TSfKf cf^S aAc@ Ar\BF j@c OT r ~ɮS AOS | cAUS S TFAS@ AS Bw j@q rSf OUO | jr Zc @wB jq aAc Zc a ަO | BTSf c O c Ar\f Tm cUOS, jc aAc kcɻ Sq, j ToF kc AEOT ATUO, j ToF Ag T^rA SkS pA T Ac@r O | FAR jTAS Tm ~^US AaU, cATeTR q, BTSf SS Bw j@خ rSf ZU l ~R OAA@ aA O | aɦ ݩ BTSf c ABASK@ wgf @ AS BS, ~SF r OR crf, - BAS S | j Ar\ SkS ZJBO, rT ~B SkS BwH ~^US, A@ jce TAB@ PSFwA j AO@ kQ Z @ ZO | q gc wgf co j sTS @ ɦ jTS co ~ @S BA Q ~B c S | s @Hq @, BTSf cf^S Ar\-Ag ~Aggk O | jZS AAS U@ TZ, Zc @wB, AF cf^S aAc AcK s chO, gAcKFl@U @ cXo j@Av gc o ceU @r @ @ c | s @T Z shO TS , qeAB wfɵAU AUZ ScU R T s @T ݨ B ~^US AaU, aAc @r @R cf^S q @T ~^US UOS | j @v qAToF ~T r A@ gc @ةk @r a BAS S, @S S ~T r qeAB Zc @wB Zc @r S, T | ~q^vqS SkS ~Acy O qeB U-Uf rU Ar@ Zc crf @ | sq @, Tw ݨ s l haA iO, B cޮw @kUR MJacq, j AcK ^ Sq | ~ATR gU @ c @ Aa BS UT S, jq BSF :Zco ha | A@ا jv BS TZ r^gc Acr @, cHS UZR ~oF | cf^S aAc AS jr A@ @ OUO, ɦɩA @ j@v BAS AUT Tn |

~oF@ ~v, @v A@ gpA g̩-AAO jce c AcZFɩ TSfKf jZS AO U | J cf^S@ ~gF˻S @ rS @ ~B r ~SUS | ~wTf AS Tc ^F cf^S jZS@ AcrAcFU cp cS |

jZSR c U@ g AcK AcrK gc BS jce BS O | cf^S @R m @ cU ASm S AS | AAS sZS shaS, @ة U@ TS@ AOAS T ~T Fgc wgfgc TUhaS, @ش A@ cI ? ~B@ AS g̩cK ޮF ~A @Uq j@ j@ AO wH @O, g̩cK@ HT @O | ~T sA j@^ F g̩cK kHɻfS TAoS PrAUF S @A, o g̩@ S, Tm Bw@ SkS ~r Zc | ~B ~ S, U @U rsF @ i @ c - ~S@ ɩ O |

jUAS, ST@ػ


7q ~w 1930



rASc AS @SwS cf^S AOn-rSf ZU c | jZS Zc ɦ wa - SR qS @ U U U@ cf^S@ Z jce J cp S R aAc rSf sw A ~ɮO |

c gU UwO | ^, rFTU, TcAĩ r, T^ oSF S OsFg Ti, T^wA Aި wd OO, I@I@ Ay wTF@بvf, ATZf aUT U@BS SfU T o A OUO | jZS@ wT @pK@ sF^ cf^S cq O, J@ wgfgc rXo @ | AAS jTS c prF AZ, s TS AcOAU - @ k jAO A@ا jZSR ~T @Ac@ j ~S cUq BS | c X AAS ZU AOS, sZSq sq cf^S r U@ cU S Tɰ q |

Berlin, Wannse
Friedrich Karlstrasse
19r ~w, 1930



jZS To T @vU | jq cɦf U@ ~T ~S waS - j cɦf ~Aa | ~qSqS @aq ~aS, q ZrS | BTSf SFɮSFU wFUA cf^S JOZAS aAc O ASU | P PO wa | ST@ػR aAc rSf OUO | sk c Tɰ hO |

@U sAhO BSg | jc r jU o cJO sS UB co , cQH A@a AS A c, OU Oq, cU Oq, UZ Oq, g AST^H AB sR Oq | jZS s UT oSFTS q AS jZS r wa a ASgp ~ST @بvf c m Z Oq |


c^ - AAOA

c^ : q cf^S


cf^S 1930 U 2 TO Ac q sn @S | J AaUS f^S i@ب, AT cf jce J AU @SF SA^Sf | cf^S nvA AwAaUS ~sS@T (~AT) qAUT | f^S Zcq ~m ަ TɰB (cTS O^q) @ f AaUS ɽ YlS OMof (~K OMof R T OMof av gq ) |

cf^S jq q sn rF AaU Av | j@. ~ɦ AcrAcFU ~T^H cv Acv - j ST ASA gKH S @ | cf^S T jq ~T^H AaUS 1928 U A@ا ZS ~mϩ @H sR AS | q. q J ASB aAc rSf @ @ةv R A@gc c ZA Z | q ~SFSF ~U gTH @c qhaR J AaU |

~AT Oncf jq sn cf^S f AaUS; c ToF @ | Ai@ q TAvq ~AT Oncf T Acr sS ASBq swF | US-j AS@vcf cATeT-j c@ (Woodbrooke) - j AU R@ (Selly Oak) @UB ~AA ~oF@ @TASsA WvAaU J | @UBAv AZf TB ~^g @@ c Ю ɮqAv ST@ wɤf X AOAU | c@ AaU @@ j@Av @^ | ~AT Oncf 1921 U @q cɮ @ AaUS cf^ ASoF | rA^AS@ةS c Acrf AcoBS J AO WvAaU | rS, USTkU@ oTrm jce qeAB AF AcK J cFlA ZFA A@av aA AaU AcrR | ~U@B ̮ ST j@ @@ S cf^S R w^fAB- AAO AaUS | AAS rA^AS@ةSR jAaUS T | Sr AUZaS - "(̮) j@Ao@c rA^AS@ةS jaS, Tc co @A 1927 U - ~AT Oncf - PT^f cf cwS ~SS AS | ~AT Oncf@ qASq c@ @UB ~T^H @S |" (@Ac AOAi @Ac@, gkAT@- vf@- ɰS - Sr , FAɮ, @U@ɩ, 1995, p.70) | c@-j AU R@ @UB ~AT Oncf cp AcK AaU ~oAS@ ~^BɻA@ة |

~AT Oncf Lf PT^f cf @p ST ARA Aw (Hiordis Siggard) | AAS AaUS ST@ػ-j T | rA^AS@ةS jAaUS 1926 U | ~AT Oncf J Acc 1927-j | J ST PT^f AAaUS cf^S | Sr T ~AT Oncf R PT^f cf^S q q sn @AaUS | - "(~AT Oncf) mf@ s BB snf US q j@q BB Acv cp AUZ AUZ cf^SR rKc T ݨ sAhaUS | AAS J AOn@U T rSf @ ^ ST sS, ~AT Oncf OU sS qeU |" (kcɻ w^; p. 19) | A@ا ~AT Oncf cf^S j@q BB q RS AaUS A@ S TSF erR @ s | gɩ@بT TZoF jq q sn s AccH AaS cf^S f Ac sJ ST @aS J ToF ~AT Oncf R PT^f \UZ Sq | Ag^ rF UR cf^S j WAS ~AT Oncf j@q BB sn @U gɩ@بT UZ \UZ FAr AaU |

c 2 TO 1930- jq S wUR ~AT Oncf Zc @a@Aa Tq qeUF RS AaUS @S er Sq | c cA T j@c rK |

cf^S T wUS ^-j | ZS FA̮-j wFUA AwU (Galarie Pigalle) -j J T AOn-rSf U 2T AZ | jq rSf Wvf U cF AgvA R@- ~w R @ @Uq BSS | T T FA̮-j g̩f cf^S B^lc US @S | cf^S ~AT-@ AS 11 T AZ US-j ~S; 13 T AZ ~S cATeT-j c@-j ~AT Oncf ~Aݩ | ZS 17 T s^ @ ~AT Oncf R ~FB cf^S ~S ~ɦ-j | Acv cp c T (19, 21 R 26 T) ~AT Oncf J AaUS | cp A cATeT-j A ~ɮ cf^S aAc j@Av rSf U cATeT-j AAv ~v wFUA 2 BS AZ | Ai@ q US-j qA ɮqAv rSf-@Q J AOn-rSf U 4 BS | qeUF-j BS Tɮ @Av BUq T T cf^S BTɻAS RS sS | ~AT Oncf c@-jq @ wUS J cp rK @c BSF | A@ا cf^S J sn ~AT Oncf ~gc ~Sgc @ @q J@ j@Av -cɩɻ iUS | BS OqUS s, J Q cf^S gTH-f R c A@S | cf^S qha@ S BAS @@ Ю ɮqAv sc ~STA AUS ~AT Oncf@ | A@av wTf vS ~AnT @ BUq T 11 AZ cAUS-j cf^S ATAU US AAS | PT^f cf s SAS @H J j@Tn @SF T^f ZS FBɩ (B^ 30 T 1930) | gTH cA@ ASAU ~AT Oncf cf^S q qUS 1931 U cA Tɮ s^ | q gTH AccHq o ~a jq OSAv | UZAv @Ar AaU cɮf An@ 1337 cN @A@ eZF (~vc-Sgc 1930) | ~AT Oncf, ~crF cf^S gTHcp^ Sި F AUAcXo @SAS | cF @aS oS ASB UANo |

An@ @Ar OSAv A@ AaU s jAv n@ UZ AaU TS PTn@ | TS PTn AaUS ~AT Oncf TɩU | AF ZFA^ jce AA^ @UB qeAB ~oF@ AaUS AAS | c^ R AF-TUOS AUZS | AAS AaUS cf^S j@^ ~Swf | A@r c ~AT Oncf@ AASq AAaUS ~oAS@ AF T i | T OMof R qA^ cf OMoHf ~AT- T AOR AASq @A AAaUS | ~AT ZS rT rHf an |

q cf^S OSAv @ػ ~ j@Av FR \UZswF | OS Tq BTɻAS @ػ ~AT Oncf haA rAm cF a - "TTSK r jAO, j c @ gc BS jce O rA A gc@ @T ASw @ | ... @U Qnq j TS kH SkS OS BU ~U UO, TkU @ H c cU wa, TkU @ H haA ~B cfs TSf @Ar ha |" A@ا s BTɻAS cf AS ca ToFq w FAcɰf rA ~L@r @ sha @S ~gɮ SAS | cf^S c ~AT Oncf - @شq | j-AcK mHswF gɩ@بT TZoF A - "@Ac R ~ATO^ BTAS s prF AZaS, AO@H Uq-j A@v | BTS BA Ag @f gfKHgc w SFrSAUmv q Aia, TF@ qJ AZ S Sq |" (cf^BfcSf R cf^AF cr@, gɩ@بT TZoF, pf Z, Acrg̩f, rA^AS@ةS, 1961, p. 379) | cf AS ca ToFq ~AT Oncf qAU R BTɻAS FASɰf m @ػ ~cA AaUS |

cv Acv (Robert Hibbert, 1770-1849) AaUS BFTq@- j@ cFcf ިn | BFTq@- cFc @ AAS gk Ac ~Ao@f S | AS AaUS AZf qASvAS wɤf oTf ~O Acrɮf | q q AaUS AcFSwf R TBc ~wf | @pG ɮ ~cm ^A jce ToF oTO Acmp A@\S wH @AaUS AAS | 1847 U j@Av ~Aa AK wiS @ qASvAS TScUcf AZmvoTɻSTA TSccɰ O BSF AAS j@@UfS cr A@a ~˻ S @S | q ~Aa AK F 1878 U @ ~ɦ AcrAcFU @S TScoTTkU@ AcK cAK@ cpTU cFcm @S | T ca ~TA^ c AaUS g̩Ac BTɻS AЩ TFTU (kS ST AAr TFAATAUS TU, 1823-1900) | cf^Sq AaUS T jrf c | (c\Uf o@pGSR) ~TA^ AaUS |

cf^S AOn-rSf @ػ jq OSAv c c \UZ ~a | 1930U @S T @ J aAc rSf d AaU kH AU@ jZS R U -

2 T - wFUA AwU (Galarie Pigalle), FA̮, ^ |

2 BS - AAv ~v wFUA (City Art Gallery), (India Society), US, qeUF |

16 BUq - TUɮ wFUA (Moeller's Gallery), cAUS, BTɻAS |

19 BUq - ~v c ~g FAS (Art Club of Saxony), S, BTɻAS |

23 BUq - wFUA @FɮA (Gallery Caspri), ATASZ, BTɻAS |

9 ~wmv - rUɻScw A@O wFUA (Charlothenburg Picture Gallery), @SwS, ST@ػ |

~wmv -- BSg, qBUF |

17 vc - mvv ATABT ~g AS RmvS ~v (State Museum of New Western Art), Tm, es Agݩ TBcɰf oH^ |

~vc -- U ~F AOɦ wFUA (Doll And Richard's Gallery), cmvS, ~TA@ s |

~vc -- ATABT ~g qS ~v (Museum of Fine Arts), cmvS, ~TA@ s |

Ac -- AجAv A@ Amvv wFUAB (Fifty Sixth Street Galleries), AS q@ػ, ~TA@ s |

Ac -- ASTFS wFUAB (Newman Galleries), AUUA, ~TA@ s |


cɮ, BSf, 2011

jq UZAv ~S TT BSS



©2011 Parabaas