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ceU @ɮAF ~oAS@ c oS UZ@ c^FoF-nf -- r, AcgkAgkKH, TAS@ -- @Uq @@Av ~A@p w\ AUZaS | jJ ToF TAS@ c^FoF (1908-1956) TSK TS AcAOn cH rNAOn ASTɻH @pfAr\f | wS TS ~U-~^@ AcAOn ak ASTɻH Q TAS@@ ~@KH @AaU gk em c ~A@p Acr AcAco m | ~^ OAv j oS w\ AUZAaUS AAS | OAv ToF ASAvq UZ AaU A@r BSF |

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SwS Acrɮ TpF ~-UMA@@ rA @H TT BSaS TɩU Acw @ | jq ri BSF SwS@ AAS WpH @ d @aS | J UC ~J@ aAc AAS SwS ɩ R a^ @aS S | AS c ~U BU aAc ɩ i@U A@aq S | SwS TS wgf ASA ~a jq F s Ac ~U rAfS | q TS WvS ia -~AmL TH | ~^@ ASBS aAc ɩ RTn --"TT ~T@ iU S | Tm rf sS ISIAS IJ@AS A Ri |" (TAS@ c^FoF A@r OSɮ, ɰS ˻ABl woF, AEOTc ceU ~@AT, T @r 2006, p. 161) |

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rNfS PSr ~^@ ASBS ~^@ SwS UqcAW Aw J TS A@ا Bw DKl g | AAS cI S -- "TSK TS AOASq TSK TS | sA-@ػ, Acrɮ-~Acrɮ A TSK g@ B @ S | ~Wɩ UwU sTS cSco cq, TAS s g @H Amϩ U TSK@ g q c |" (kcɻ w^ p. 163) | TS cn BAvU cH | @ةv OS AaUS -- TSmLL S UZ@ @ة wgf ~ cF AaU XopAAv q TH |

~H ASB@ es Z r J J UAw PUAOn T mr @S | lQHl AcF W ISIAS Ri rf Aav@ TI c S AAS | ~ɩAߩ SwS QH BU Aa ~U | PcFA@ ~U XgA PUAOn k T ~ A@ UwS Av cUc Z AAS cI sS gkAv @ | J r Bcc cU A aAc R a d T ~ cUc Av aAc Av @a qAASAe-j an TT gq |

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w\ OS T 1940 AZN cTS T T PcFAS s^A ~Ao@F AaU S | c haU ToFAc Ac -- s Ac PUAOn ~J@S T aAc k T UwS T ewA ~a cA Z OU S jv Ai@ Acrɮ @ s S | Z sA @ c TS qO c^ @U @TS @ W̩ q Z c^ UZ@ kH Sfc |

q TS w\Av sS m:mk pA S -- ~S@vq cAS U | A@rTS @ gk g k @ OS rF w\Av l | r Acr AcrKH @Tq TS i@ | r j cUaS k T SfO @i Bɩf A@a AcFl ~-Acf | q ^F ~U BUUR AcF AcU TS c S | ~c c ~U BU cU aAc T-j AcF @ S r@ c T rA | UqcA @Q ~U BUUR j@q @H aAc ɩ R s Bq | sZS ASg s c ~U ZS k T-j cA AcFl Ri ~Wɩ R T rATS | ZS aAc mr @Uq TScrf cr @ AcFl | PUAOn gk ZSq o A U q TSKAv@ |

gk w\ Ac w\Av TS U S | A@ا gk-en^ em s gk cک, Aro mp, gkgfA @H AcrK g R @ػ TAS@ c^FoF eAQ ~O kQ AcrKH J AUZSASިH ~ TSmLL S wgf̩ TH PUAOn gk w\Av | jBSFq w\Av@ ~A@p w\ Ac ha TS @ s S |

jU -- oH gk w\ ɰSASg ~o j@Av w\ | ~ScF mS gA w\Av T TA A@r An@ eTrU-j 1953 cN r̰ eZF | Av Ac WAS AW w ia j w\ @iT |

Arcc ~ A@r AcTS cc (w\ Sq J ST) cɮ AaU q p@ cA | Ac Av ToF AaU fA @ػ | AcTS ~ Arcc aU w - BS ToF AaU wb c^ΨL | il Arcc AcTS cc@ j@Av Ai@S A OU sS cA a | U R cAAv gɦ AS l@ cFAcp^ ~ AcTS cc -- @شq Rq Ai@S AOAi AR Arcc @ SAS swsw | T c s | @v s O-JO ca | T s AcTS j@ AA |

j@ @U T @a AcTS rS w cA AaS Arcc jce J Ac |

w ~w AcTS s Arcc cA| B-BSU ZU @UR cA wv AaU c^ | AcTS @ S @TS sS nبXo AcA AS cq ~S Arcc; ~Xg J wU BS OS @F | AcTS ~c@ Z "... @TS sS wU@ wa Arcc TZv |" (kcɻ w^, p. 197) J ~OH wa Uv | AcTS@ AAS A OS S kc T m r | AcTS A ~ coF q |

cc R Arcc @S jTSq ~mgAc@ cFc | AcTS cc @ BS s Z UR Arcc -- "gU @ @q cUU S | A j sS B @a ~T | ~gF gk @@ |" (c) |

jq j@cq gk rNAv cFcY a w\ | cFc AcTS cc AcA mgAc@ @r Tn -- @S ~A@p qAʩ Sq | c nT A ~ɮ AcAv ~-mgAc@ A@Av ia m | s AwAaU ~ s jU -- s j@ S -- j F ~ZFS-OAn T i@R cI S | AcAv s TpF R @ ja -- qAʩ ~a ~O ~ ~@ AcS cHS | @U Arcc@ gU Z T AS AcTS | ި TU sw |

mU sc vT BSF ~Q @AaU AcTS | ZS-- "Arcc r j JS | A@R FZS S A@ | AcTS @ ~EOs , ... TZv @TS cU wa Arcc | @U s@T ZAhaU @T S | j@v sS Ucv wa TZv, ZS j@v AbU ~ Iޮ TS AaU TZ~ OT, jZS sS O@O@ @a | cݮ TS ha ~S@ @T | Arcc S Arcc gqvq U sTS Zɩ | av gq @f ~a Arcc ? qAS A@ Arcc SS, AAS ?" (kcɻ w^, p. 197)

TpF Ta A˻c c s^H -- jTSq TSK Acrɮ | ~c j emR TScTS pb s, ~cc AcS QT | Arcc cݮ @T TS R, @U-ި TZ Ag^ -- sS ASr AO Arcc L | AcTS cI AS cUq a AcAm | Arcc@ BfAc TSK cUq gca | q -BS vT Ri AcTS j@ T kc WAS kn @ Aa ArBFi cU | cq pA Z cAaUS Arcc | jc AAS "... of of TZ AA OZ A@ ZAS@QH O @S, TZ Z TS ~F w sS @JaS g |

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@ S A@ا TS s w S AAS sS ~F @^ OaS g |" (c)

~AScs TpF c^ ASd no ~ BfcS-AcAha^ R ~ cS jgcq sS TAS@ UZSf ia cc | Arcc ~ A@a S cU AcTS ~U S @ cq O @S | AAS s BfAc , cJO @ A TSK ~H O LLR sw mS @ ~T˻ TH sS jq cq A@ @ | ~ J rff k, sɮc BfAcUF AcOH BfcS s R QA^fS TH |

J O c U S | TT cU s J ~@ | jgcq AcTS jce i@ of of ~Sgc @ Arcc ToF ja ~TkU @S AcS | q Arcc ST BSF i JU AcTS OT@ Ri -- "j@v IJA@ Uw AcTS TS | il w ~ Uc waS Arcc ~Xg @T ! ɵAc ɩ ToF @Ai T ɩ Av Sc @a, jTS d wa wUv s Tv@ TS ha @ mvFP^ R cS c T |" (kcɻ w^, p. 198) Arcc sS HH ~mf@ @ OqaS TpF@ -- q J OU mgAc@ | oH TSK T r@ AAS sɩɩ @S vT | J BfcSfS TH J ~mgAc@ jce AcSrfU rf | - rf c @Upr -- ceU jq U@خem ASިHgcq cFc @aS TAS@ c^FoF Arcc rf AccH | c UZ@ w\ j em SSgc k Ug @a | TS @ s T (BrZ c 1880-1960 -aXST) AUAZ gkrf Ti (wAU@ : 1925) w\ @A A cHS -- "T wA, @U AU@AU@ O @J@U T j@Av BfcL..." (wAU@ jT. A. @ ~F ^, T emH 1332 c. nɰr emH 1369 c. p. 114) |

g jq s i@@ T ~AmL @ػ OS @ AaS w\ dq | TAS@ A@ا ~EOs AUA@بrU i@@ cIq SAS ~Acgɻc @ | ce J R cHS ^ Bw i@TS Arcc rfA@ ~ TSA@ mϩ @ػ | @ػ mgAc@ gfA ~c@r w\Av Sq | AcTSR Ac^Tn rAߩ AS Arcc ~OH c @ | ce T Arcc@ Z R @ S TS BwAaU ~AgTS | AXfc Arcc ~U S @ w Ri | ~c J cU sR TZ ~ rf Z OT@ UwAaU | IJA@ Uw rNc^Av cFc AcTS TSA@ ~cm wa m |

~A kQgc ~ZFS-~cc TAS@ A̩ @ AaS ~ɩ | Arcc ~ J Ac @ػ A^o Ri AcTS ~ i@ | mU-̩ AcTS Arcc cA TS JA s | @S S cA g @ ~m j@v wCAS @S ja | q rN O @^R | jc g AcTS | w @Jv - TS AA TpF T hOc @^ AwAaU ~TSq ASmB wCAS | jTS @q Arcc Ac TpF sw @ػ qAʩ AaS UZ@ | nT AcTS T i@TSR Bw r ATAr @MkU -- "wv U, Arcc R@T Zaɦ cFc, w AvA@v Z S R, wAC wAC @^ -- jc @f OUa w cA |" (c) A@r AcTS @ O F-^OS | BS s ~w WvS o» Ri s TSK TSc gF ~wwTS @H mr Uw AcTS TS | w ST o @ | ZSq T s wCAS -- Z s w T@ | aU c^Ψ@ Z ~FS k @ -- @q cUS S AAS -- " BSU Ar@ o @U-cc-~^ T AS ASEOU JA @S |" (c) |

AcTS OZ w T O ~w T Sq -- "TZZSR @TS sS wU@ wa TS AcTS, OT sS AbU IU a | @Uv av ~oZS wa |" (c)

s H fAc Z TSK@ -- q BfcS ~gc ja jq AcS -- TAS@ cHS a q kQ cFS | BfcS ~ BfAc Tp @ cFcoS | AcTS @ S cU w T sS A OS qAʩ | Arcc ިdK cUq cUgc ~AnT @ OaS q co | O cF˻ AAS nبXo Ac̽ | ~ Sf w T BfcS sTS TpFR TSq Sfc F @ OaS jq ~cm cS | jgc AcO @U TAS@ c^FoF TSAcrKH cH ~ cmc S Z̩ Ri m |

AcTS cc OZ AaU Arcc ~OH ~mgAc@ة | ~ T OZ o a w T ~OH-~ewA | ToFAc q wpASf ToF w iAaU B fA Amo @ػ | q kn AAS ToF-~c@r Z @ AwAaUS w T | A@ا -- "@ش BR ZUU S ɦR AU S | w T R BSU JA j@ SB Z wU |" (kcɻ w^, p. 198)

fW ~rS Z R QH FAr Tɰ cFAnT J TS Uw Zv@ | A@av ~R AAS AaUS | j@q mgAc@ @MkU AAS ZAaUS kc Zf ~cc ~w T Sq "... A@ sS @Ai wa j@c, TZZS O OFv wa | ~TS ^ Z AaU TSKv |" (c) j AccpAR jq qAʩ s Fw ToF BfcS ̮ M^s ~ Sq |

Tp BfAc ATAU ~T˻ | BfAc ~QT Tp esw mS | jq ~QT cS Arcc no ~ J mf @^ l | J Bfc TSK TS @q -- AcTS ~ cc-T AcAm R @H |

j w\Av ~w TA A@ | mU-̩ AcTS sc بvcU ZU | T @ av T cS @ BAS j@Av v@ A ~S cUS qAUr | q Tp ~SF T qAUrAݩ mpA J OZ ~S BU |

Ta @S T AcTS TS wR gUcɮ qAUr | j@ c^Ψ cA Rq Ta ^ U ~SF c^Ψ AST^H AaU cJo | AcTS Ai@ @ w@ @ Sc ASB cA; ZRc kc A Ta | q T R v@ ASB ݮ sw @ KU ~S cU ~i ~S A@S S qAUr | T ZS ^F, cpAR STa | AcTS Arcc cA A@ RS |

@a j ~c@ Z ~UA@ة cAAv c^ JA w ! c^Ψ BS m ST o @ | jc @p ToF j s ~A@p | "OZ U@ w ASBq c^ @ m ST ~ |" (kcɻ w^, p. 200) lQHl ASg s cA c ~U | WvSɰAv ~mgAc@ esw o S AcTS | AشB S R @ TS ~ ; aɦ c AS c^Ψ@ ZS ~S^ AcU -- "~FAS jAU c AF ?" (c) |

w s Tp cIAS AcTS; cI AS w@ vS jSa qAUr | cJO @ A AaU Rq Ta | TpF TlFAݩ em s R Ug wa c | q @a j c^Ψ oa ɩ, @R cUa | A@ا BfcS-G S w mr; HfS -- "i @S@S ... @S T qAUr Tav sTS AaU |" (c)

c̬-AQة Tp qAUr AT mr USAv w BfcSfS@ @ Ua m |

TAS@ c^FoF jZS TlAݩ A@ػ ceU U@ emAv ASިHgc cFc @aS | Tp AT-mr AcK AcrBSfS Acr wR jZS ia ~ScF | Tp ~L mr BfAc Q g S, @S S c BfAc@ TpFBF AS s O; @ O ~S O | jq U@خemAv qAʩ sS jZS AaS TAS@ c^FoF | w ɩ o q AcTS -TS Bfc S @ | @بrUf c@FAcSF AcS@ TAS@ @ UaS AcrɮF | w ɩ O o q -- "il @TS AIAT s AcTS @S sS AcA co | w Aa cU l fS BwAaU c sS @TS AT s j@ | cA Aw j@v rc BSF Hv avv @ Ri | @ةQH jZS w c@c@ @ c @ BS ! OZ cB AcTS b@ wU | ~A @ OZ TU -- sS @JO WT @ Bw ha |" (c) |

XopAAv ToF AcTS s nT BfcSfS A@ jAw s coF ha qAʩ ~a | TAS@ c^FoF ~Sgc@ rff @ U ~-UF H jq ~er -- mf@ @q i@@ |

oH gk w\ jq TSKAv OS | TAS@ ~SH @SAS q OAU XoA | J w\ mr Uv wa BfAc TS |

~m c^Ψ@ jc B R sc @a | c j BSFq ~^A w | OZ ZU AcTS q Z S @ | jq ~-MBSF nبXo @ AcTS@ | w@ HfS cU cIAS | q gc -- "w j@T cFc j@U A j ? Jc T U S, cA @ j@c c cU ZU U S ! w sS BU @ @ AcTS TwB | s^H J J UAw S S @ jAw s ASB cA A@ |" (c) |

c^Ψ ~OH ~ c^Ψ TS-AAn ~rff mrBAS cFAo knɩ -- g A@@q AcrɮF cmc @ UaS TAS@ c^FoF ~Sɮ mha^F | @f AcU AUZS@pA AaU J -- jq ~erAv ~ j@Av TH |

AcTS cIAS s m S | d cFAo ~n^ c TSK TS Z s j oS ~OS | ~SF ABS OZ o ~mϩ | jZSR TAS@ q oH cFAv cFc @aS | cA b@q AcTS@ Z T cI sS Wva @S ~c WvS | q J aU ~ m Sq | mgc ew J AAn | g ~ɩ AAS BS OaS -- "@f a ? TZ s @AU T wa j@c | B AS ?" cU cU @U ɩ Z OT@ iUS "s gcAa ! w ި sha |" (kcɻ w^, p. 200)

jZSq T a w\ | Acmp AccpA ~Sި cFZFS OAU fA cFAnT w\Av ia ~SSF | ~A@p w\ s er ~ Acr ToF ~cA q p^ j w\ | i@ @\S @ AS ~S@ A@a | AcTS A@ T wU ~c @Av iU ~mϩ -- jq r ASAEO R wU w\Av ~SSF Qب^ | cS Acmp ~c@r ASTɻH @H w\Av ~AnT @a oSL fT |

~SF UZ@ @UT s oH j@Av gk w\ @ qA -- e@ ~k @ UaS TAS@ | Tp, ~-Tp cF˻ ATUS s^H w\Av@ @ Ua ~SgccF |

-Acrɮ c ~Acrɮ -- @SAv w\ AS oSF | er-~er s eswAc^ ~A@p OS ~cmS w\Av q rNASAT AOn | TSc-TSmLL jce ~A@p em KT ~^ ~SSF ia TAS@ c^FoF j@Tn AmA-ASg j@Tn w\ jU ! | [T A@Am]




(Ac, 2008; cɮ-42)



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